Mangrove Assessment

Only available on StudyMode
  • Topic: Mangrove, Root, Mangroves
  • Pages : 14 (4790 words )
  • Download(s) : 1011
  • Published : March 15, 2011
Open Document
Text Preview
MANGROVES ASSESSMENT OF CLUSTER IV BARANGAYS
IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SAN ANDRES

A RESEARCH STUDY

PRESENTED TO:

MR. TEODIVICO T. PASION
ASST. PROFESSOR III

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements
for the Subject

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT

PRESENTED BY:

VINCENT JAY H. GADO
JEREM M. SORIANO
VALENTIN G. DRIO
Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
Background of Study
Plants in mangals are diverse but all are able to exploit their habitat (the intertidal zone) by developing physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia, high salinity and frequent tidal inundation. About 110 species belong to the mangal. Each species has its own solutions to these problems; this may be the primary reason why, on some shorelines, mangrove tree species show distinct zonation. Small environmental variations within a mangal may lead to greatly differing methods for coping with the environment. Therefore, the mix of species is partly determined by the tolerances of individual species to physical conditions, like tidal inundation and salinity, but may also be influenced by other factors such as predation of plant seedlings by crabs. Once established, mangrove roots provide an oyster habitat and slow water flow, thereby enhancing sediment deposition in areas where it is already occurring. The fine, anoxic sediments under mangroves act as sinks for a variety of heavy (trace) metals which colloidal particles in the sediments scavenged from the water. Mangrove removal disturbs these underlying sediments, often creating problems of trace metal contamination of seawater and biota. Mangroves protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge (especially during hurricanes), and tsunamis. The mangrove's massive root system is efficient at dissipating wave energy. Likewise, they slow down tidal water enough that its sediment is deposited as the tide comes in, leaving all except fine particles when the tide ebbs. In this way, mangroves build their own environment. Because of the uniqueness of mangrove ecosystems and the protection against erosion that they provide, they are often the object of conservation programs. Mangroves, as describes its importance above, are trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics. The saline conditions tolerated by various species range from brackish water, through pure seawater, to water of over twice the salinity of ocean seawater, where the salt becomes concentrated by evaporation. Mangroves form a characteristic saline woodland or shrubland habitat, called mangrove swamp, mangrove forest, mangrove or mangal. Mangals are found in depositional coastal environments where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high energy wave action. They occur both in estuaries and along open coastlines. Mangroves dominate three quarters of tropical coastlines. The unique ecosystem found in the intricate mesh of mangrove roots offers a quiet marine region for young organisms. In areas where roots are permanently submerged, the organisms they host include algae, barnacles, oysters, sponges, and bryozoans, which all require a hard surface for anchoring while they filter feed. Shrimps and mud lobsters use the muddy bottom as their home. Mangrove crabs mulch the mangrove leaves, adding nutritients to the mangal muds for other bottom feeders. In at least some cases, export of carbon fixed in mangroves is important in coastal food webs. And because of the limited freshwater availability in salty intertidal soils, mangroves limit the amount of water that they lose through their leaves. They can restrict the opening of their stomata (pores on the leaf surfaces, which exchange carbon dioxide gas and water vapour during photosynthesis). They also vary the orientation of their leaves to avoid the harsh midday sun and so reduce evaporation from the leaves. Some observed anecdotally that a red mangrove in captivity only grows if its leaves are...
tracking img