Mango Tree

Only available on StudyMode
  • Topic: Mango, Mangifera, Fruit
  • Pages : 7 (2876 words )
  • Download(s) : 14511
  • Published : April 8, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to South Asia, from where it has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica – the 'common mango' or 'Indian mango' – is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions. It is the national fruit of India,[1]Philippines and Pakistan. In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations and religious ceremonies. Etymology The English word "mango" (plural "mangoes" or "mangos")[2] originated from the Tamil word māṅgai or mankay[3][4][5][6] or Malayalam māṅṅa[7][8] from the Dravidian root word for the same via Portuguese (also manga).[7][8] The word's first recorded attestation in a European language was a text by Ludovico di Varthema in Italian in 1510, as manga; the first recorded occurrences in languages such as French and post-classical Latin appear to be translations from this Italian text. The origin of the "-o" ending in English is unclear.[9] When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled due to lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were also pickled and came to be called "mangoes", especially bell peppers, and by the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle".[10] ↑Jump back a section Description A mango tree in full bloom in Kerala, India Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) grow up to 35–40 m (115–130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The trees are long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years. In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft), with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots; the tree also sends down many anchor roots, which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9– 14 in) long and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark, glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild, sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley . The fruit takes three to six months to ripen. The ripe fruit varies in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp. Ripe, unpeeled mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039– 0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in) long. The seed contains the plant embryo. ↑Jump back a section Cultivation Mango orchard in Multan, Pakistan Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years [11] and reached East Asia between the fifth and fourth centuries BC. By the 10th century AD, cultivation had begun in East Africa.[11] The 14th century Moroccan traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.[12] Cultivation came later to Brazil, the West Indies and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.[11] The mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; more than a third of the world's mangoes are cultivated in India alone, with the second-largest source being China. [13][14][15] Mangoes are also grown in Andalusia, Spain (mainly in Málaga province), as its coastal subtropical climate is one of the few places in mainland Europe that allows the growth of tropical plants and fruit trees. The Canary Islands are another notable Spanish producer of the fruit. Other cultivators include North America (in South Florida and...
tracking img