Mango (Mangifera indica Linn) is the most important fruit of India and is known as “King of fruits”. The fruit is cultivated in the largest area i.e. 2,312 thousand ha and the production is around 15.03 million tons, contributing 40.48% of the total world production of mango. The main mango producing states in India are Uttar Pradesh (23.86%), Andhra Pradesh (22.14%), Karnataka (11.71%), Bihar (8.79%), Gujarat (6.00%) and Tamil Nadu (5.09%). Total export of mangoes from India is 59.22 thousand tons, valuing Rs. 162.92 crores during 2010-11. India exports mango to over 40 countries worldwide. The major importing countries of India’s Mangoes during the period of 2010-11 were UAE (61.79%), Bangladesh (11.41%), UK (8.92%), Saudi Arabia(3.79%), Kuwait (2.32%), and Bahrain (2.19%) respectively.
The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of adaptability, high nutritive value, and richness in variety, delicious taste and excellent flavour. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C. The fruit is consumed raw or ripe. Good mango varieties contain 20% of total soluble sugars. The acid content of ripe desert fruit varies from 0.2 to 0.5 % and protein content is about 1 %. Raw fruits of local varieties of mango trees are used for preparing various traditional products like raw slices in brine, amchur, pickle, murabba, chutney, panhe (sharabat) etc. Presently, the raw fruit of local varieties of mango are used for preparing pickle and raw slices in brine on commercial scale while fruits of Alphonso variety are used for squash in coastal western zone. The wood is used as timber, and dried twigs are used for religious purposes. The mango kernel also contains about 8-10% good quality fat which can be used for saponification. Its starch is used in confectionery industry. Mango also has medicinal uses. The ripe fruit has fattening, diuretic and laxative properties. It helps to increase digestive capacity.
Among internationally traded tropical fruits, mango ranks only second to pineapple in quantity and value. Major markets for fresh and dried mangoes in 1998 were: Malaysia, Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong and the Netherlands, while for canned mango were: Netherlands, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, France and USA.
Southeast Asian buyers consume mangoes all year round. Their supplies come mainly from India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Australia and most recently South Africa. Each exporting country has its own varieties, which differ in shape, colour and flavour. Prices are very low for Indonesian and Thailand fruit and are on the higher side for Indian fruit. In the United States of America, the prices vary with the season, higher prices found during February and March, when mango availability is lowest.Most international trade in fresh mangoes takes place within short distances. Mexico, Haiti and Brazil account for the majority of North America’s imports. India and Pakistan are the predominant suppliers to the West Asian market. Southeast Asian countries get most of their supplies from the Philippines and Thailand. European Union buyers source mangoes from South America and Asia. Although Asia accounts for 75 percent of world production, its dominance does not translate into international trade. Production
Mango covers an area of 4946 thousand ha with a production of 37.12 million tons in the world during the year of 2010. India occupies top position among mango growing countries of the world and produces 40.48% of the total world mango production. China and Thailand stood at second and third position among mango producing countries in the world with 4,366 and 2,551 thousand tons respectively. The other major mango producing countries in the world during 2010 were Thailand (2550 thousand tons), Pakistan (1784 thousand tones), Maxico (1633 thousand tones) and Indonesia (1314 thousand tones) respectively. The details are given below in the table.