Manegerial Economic

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Introduction to Managerial Economics
Managerial economics (sometimes referred to as business economics) is a branch of economics that applies microeconomic analysis to decision methods of businesses or other management units. As such, it bridges economic theory and economics in practice. It draws heavily from quantitative techniques such as regression analysis and correlation, Lagrangian calculus (linear). If there is a unifying theme that runs through most of managerial economics it is the attempt to optimize business decisions given the firm's objectives and given constraints imposed by scarcity, for example through the use of operations research and programming. Almost any business decision can be analyzed with managerial economics techniques, but it is most commonly applied to: * Risk analysis - various models are used to quantify risk and asymmetric information and to employ them in decision rules to manage risk. * Production analysis - microeconomic techniques are used to analyze production efficiency, optimum factor allocation, costs, economies of scale and to estimate the firm's cost function. * Pricing analysis - microeconomic techniques are used to analyze various pricing decisions including transfer pricing, joint product pricing, price discrimination, price elasticity estimations, and choosing the optimum pricing method. * Capital budgeting - Investment theory is used to examine a firm's capital purchasing decisions. Definition

“Managerial economics is the integration of economic theory with business practice for the purpose of facilitating decision-making and forward planning by management” Decisions made by managers are crucial to the success or failure of a business. Roles played by business managers are becoming increasingly more challenging as complexity in the business world grows. Business decisions are increasingly dependent on constraints imposed from outside the economy in which a particular business is based—both in terms of production of goods as well as the markets for the goods produced. The impact of rapid technological change on innovation in products and processes, as well as in marketing and sales techniques, figures prominently among the factors contributing to the increasing complexity of the business environment. Moreover, because of increased globalization of the marketplace, there is more volatility in both input and product prices. The continuous changes in the economic and business environment make it ever more difficult to accurately evaluate the outcome of a business decision. In such a changing environment, sound economic analysis becomes all the more important as a basis of decision making. Managerial economics is a discipline that is designed to provide a solid foundation of economic understanding in order for business managers to make well-informed and well-analysis managerial decisions.

There are a number of issues relevant to businesses that are based on economic thinking or analysis. Examples of questions that managerial economics attempts to answer are: What determines whether an aspiring business firm should enter a particular industry or simply start producing a new product or service? Should a firm continue to be in business in an industry in which it is currently engaged or cut its losses and exit the industry? Why do some professions pay handsome salaries, whereas some others pay barely enough to survive? How can the business best motivate the employees of a firm? The issues relevant to managerial economics can be further focused by expanding on the first two of the preceding questions. Let us consider the first question in which a firm (or a would-be firm) is considering entering an industry. For example, what led Frederick W. Smith the founder of Federal Express, to start his overnight mail service? A service of this nature did not exist in any significant form in the United States, and people seemed to be doing just...
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