A system can be simply defined as a group of interrelated or interacting elements forming a unified whole. Many examples of systems can be found in the physical and biological sciences, in modern technology, and in human society. Thus, we can talk of the physical system of the sun and its planets, the biological system of the human body, the technological system of an oil refinery, and the socioeconomic system of a business organization. A system is a group of interrelated components working together toward a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process. Such a system (sometimes called a dynamic system) has three basic interacting components or functions:
Input involves capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed. For example, raw materials, energy, data, and human efforts must be secured and organized for processing.
Processing involves transformation process that convert input into output. Examples are a manufacturing process, the human breathing process, or mathematical calculations.
Output involves transferring elements that have been produced by a transformation process to their ultimate destination. services, For example, finished products, human be and management information must
transmitted to their human users.
Example A manufacturing system accepts raw materials as input and produces finished goods as output. An information system also is a system that accepts resources (data) as input and process them into products (information) as output.
FEEDBACK AND CONTROL A system with feedback and control components is
sometimes called a cybernetic system, that is, a self-monitoring, self-regulating system.
Feedback is data about the performance of a system. For example, data about sales performance is feedback to a sales manager.
Control involves monitoring and evaluating feedback to determine whether a system... [continues]
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