a. Explain briefly about Managing technology.
Answer - Managing technology involves concepts like new venture, innovation, and research and R&D infrastructure. We can say that technology is the useful tool which controls the environment and also acts as an instrument which converts the natural resources in to useful goods. This is the main factor which affects the growth of an organization. & that’s why managing technology is essential for any organization. Some issues related to the Managing technologies described below * Technology and long-term cycles:
There are some economists who argue that technology affects growth and recession in the world economy. The infrastructure is useful for maturation of the technologies. When the downturn starts to come up again then organizations has to invest the capital equipment that is based on the new technologies. * Technology and comparative advantage:
At the national level, the firms will have more value when it has both the comparative advantage and also the technological lead. All the other companies from the world look for your organization. There are some of the emerging technologies that have to be dealt when you are discussing about managing technology. The emerging technologies are the new technologies that are sometime considered critical for humanity’s future. b. Explain any two alternatives for acquiring new technologies. We are presently living in the competitive world. The organizations have to use the advanced technologies to remain in competitive market of today, for long. The technology managers have less time, fewer resources and more problems for the implementation of the technology. There are many alternatives for acquiring the internal and external technologies. Some of these mentioned are the best * Develop technology in-house:
This involves development of the technology within the house. In this, the company has to make an estimate of the financial costs that are associated with the Research and Development (R&D) and the cost of the opportunities that are associated with R&D. This also assesses the suitability of the employees for the new project * Enter into joint ventures:
We know that many of the companies share the costs of the new technology; in the same way, the benefits are also shared. The membership of the research gets more attraction when the risks are high and the costs are heavy. There will be existence of very good relationship between the key supplier and the major customer.
a. Explain in brief about the six phases in technology forecasting process.
Answer- According to our working definitions, the main function of the technology is “to lead the decision making process towards profitable solutions with minimum uncertainties” Six phases of technology forecasting are
* Identification of needs: After identifying the expected outputs and the objectives of the future, a thorough analysis is done in order to make sure the relevance of technology forecasting. * Prepare project: In this phase, the forecasting activities that are planned and resources are allocated. The roles of each human resource are carefully prepared and explained.. * Define objectives: This phase once again goes through the objectives that are defined in the first and second phases. This phase decides the dimensions of the forecast. * Perform analysis and develop Technology Forecast (TF): This is the central part of the present research. In this phase, we start with defining the boundaries of the technological system that has to be forecasted. * Validate results: in these steps forecasting process is to validate results. This includes the customer satisfaction with the results of TF. * Application of TF: The last phase in the technological forecast is the application of TF·. This depends mainly on the needs and the formulated objectives. b. What are the benefits of technology absorption?