Managing Principle

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Introduction
Theory
Communication is defined as exchange of ideas, emotions, messages, stories and information through different means including writing, speech, signals, objects or actions.(Clegg et all, 2008). Levels of communication

Littlejohn (1989) differentiates between four levels of communication: Dyadic Communication: Dyadic communication means two party communications. Dyadic communication can be interpersonal or face to face and can be informal and formal form of communication. Interpersonal communication is based on interdependence, where each person’s behavior is a consequence of the other’s. Dyadic communication can be impersonal also, in which two parties can manage communication by a letter, email or call. Small-group communication: This type involves group level communication which is not only face to face, but roles are established and sub groups formed. A group is established beyond the dynamics of its individual members. The culture and the problem solving within a group basically depends upon the interaction among its members. Shared Meanings: In this type, communication takes place on basis of shared understanding and implicit rules. Through shared meanings organization members reduce the time of their tasks by virtue of predictable communication patterns. That is they seek to reduce ambiguity by developing shared routines with others in organization. Mass Communication: This type of communication goes from one point to many receivers. It has four characteristics: i) it is communication to a large, anonymous and heterogeneous audiences; ii) it is primarily one way communication; iii) it is transmitted through different channels that work fast; iv) sender is usually big organization rather than individuals. Functions of Communication Processes

Bordow and Moore (1991) specified four major functions for communication processes. i) Informative function: Communication transports information about facts and figures that are basis of informed action, thus communication generates actions. ii) Systemic function: Communication is glue between organizational members iii) Literal function: Communication implies meaning and sense along with the fact, thus it is sense making. iv) Figurative function: Communication legitimizes an organization by establishing a link to a wider audience. It represents an organization’s identity, its mission and its purpose.

Discussion and Analysis
Communication is the backbone of dell’s business strategy and by virtue of it dell seeks advantage above its competitors. Dyadic communication: Dell’s sales to individuals were made on telephone, fax and the internet. Customers could talk with sales representatives about specific models and get information faxed or mailed to them. Similar process is followed for customer service, as a customer can email and call dell’s representatives with any problem they face. Internet sales? From above example it is clear that Dell had Dyadic type of communication which was specifically impersonal dyadic communication. Bordow and Moore classified four major functions for rich communication processes. i) Informative function: Customer’s conversation with sales representatives about specific models, communicates facts to customers. These facts forms a basis, if customer will buy product or not or feedback for the company to introduce certain type of models according to customer needs, thus an informed action. ii) Systemic function: Communication should bond organizational members. No instance of Interpersonal or Impersonal communication is found between Dell’s members in case study. By virtue of Dell as a case it is hard to establish if Systemic function exists in Dyadic communication. iii) Literal function: Dell’s customer care services resolved customer’s problem. Thus it gives a meaning to customer’s experience of communicating with the Dell’s representatives. Constructive evidence of facts leading to rightful approach to answer...
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