Sanie Joel V. Cagoco
Managing Marine Resources Sustainably
Eutrophication is a syndrome of ecosystem responses to human activities that fertilize water bodies with nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P), often leading to changes in animal and plant populations and degradation of water and habitat quality. Nitrogen and phosphorous are essential components of structural proteins, enzymes, cell membranes, nucleic acids and molecules that capture and utilize light and chemical energy to support life. The biologically available forms of Nitrogen and Phosphorous are present at low concentrations in pristine lakes, rivers, estuaries and in vast regions of the upper ocean.
The natural resources of the sea are extremely valuable and, for the most part, are renewable. If properly managed, they should provide continuing returns into the future without diminishing their productivity. Yet, for many of these resources, including those of importance to industries such as ﬁshing and tourism, efﬁcient management and sustainable exploitation have been the exception rather than the rule. Resources have been depleted and have collapsed due to over-exploitation, with severe economic and social consequences for the humans relying on them.
Increasing demand for ocean resources due to population growth and economic expansion has raised concern about the sustainability of the ocean resources and amenities that contribute to the well-being of people around the globe. Highly productive fisheries have collapsed, marine and coastal habitats have been
Eutrophication was first evident in lakes and rivers as they became choked with excessive growth of rooted plants and floating algal scums, prompting intense study in the 1960’s – 70’s and culmination in the scientific basis for banning phosphate detergents and upgrading sewage treatment to reduce wastewater Nitrogen and Phosphorous discharges to inland waters.
lost or degraded, and carbon dioxide from fossil fuels is changing the climate and some of the basic properties of the marine environment. These stresses increase the urgency of developing sustainable practices for activities in the ocean. Of the ocean's renewable resources, fish are probably the most pressing concern to people around the world. The sustainability of the ocean's fisheries is essential for the well-being of people in both developing and industrialized nations, through markets that range from local to global in scale. Seafood is the major source of protein for more than 1 billion people internationally, while about 44 million depend on fishing or fish farming for their livelihood. Because seafood provides an immediate connection between the ocean and people, we discuss fish production in terms of managing the wild harvest and developing sustainable
aquaculture practices. (Susan Roberts and Kenneth Brink)
Managing Marine Resources Sustainably
Common to most definitions of sustainability is the concept of using renewable resources without jeopardizing their availability for use by future generations. Sustainable means different things to different people, and notably has been a point of contention in fisheries management. The 1992 UN Convention on Biological Diversity defined sustainable use as ―the use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.
Fisheries management involves regulating when, where, how, and how much fishermen are allowed to harvest to ensure that there will be fish in the future. It draws on fisheries science in order to find ways to protect fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible. Modern fisheries management is often referred to as a governmental system of appropriate management rules based on defined...