COURSE TITLE : MANAGING IN ORGANISATIONS
ASSIGNMENT BRIEF: “CHOOSE ONE OR TWO OF THE AREAS COVERED IN THE MANAGING OF ORGANISATIONS MODULE AND CRITICALLY ANALYSE THEM WITH REFERENCE TO AN ORGANISATION IN WHICH YOU HAVE WORKED”
LECTURER: PROF. SUSAN MILLER
What is motivation? In my opinion it is any action, statement, reason or stimulus that acts as a catalyst for either a positive or negative reaction geared towards or against a goal. OTHER DEFINITIONS
Twyla Dell writes of motivating employees “The heart of motivation is to give people what they really want from work. The more you are able to provide what they want, the more you should expect what you really want, namely: productivity, quality, and service” (Dell, 1988). The meaning of motivation is tending to initiate motion; power; that which induces a person to act e .g desire, fear, and circumstance. (Oxford Dictionary 1987) Motivation as defined by Atkinson is “…..the contemporary (immediate) influence on the direction, vigour, and persistence of action.” (Atkinson, 1964) In the words of Victor Harold Vroom it is “….a process governing choice made by persons or lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary activity (Vroom, 1964).
Everyone is motivated by something either directed towards action or inaction, for example I am working on this assessment because i am motivated to do so in order to fulfil academic obligations, justify the anticipation of good marks and of course the interest I have in research. The Tutor also has motives for requesting this assessment which could be to test the student’s knowledge of the module, ability to synthesise the study material as well as critically analysis. The Organizations, Government Bodies and Sponsors of Students presently undertaking the MBA also have motives, which could be for the Students to acquire top-class knowledge from a renowned Institution and different business environment so as to come back and put it to practice for the benefit of the granting entity. The UK Boarder Agency will also have motives for granting we International Students visas, it could be to encourage a diverse mix of culture amongst UK Institutions and possibly to increase the revenue that goes to HMRC (Her Majesty Revenue & Customs) . Why have i digressed so much? It is to give an insight to the fact that every human activity, endeavour, relationship, work experience and environment is under-pined by Motivation. The business environment i. e organisations are not excluded. To do this justice a critical analysis of theories is pivotal. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION THEORIES AS THEY RELATE TO PRACTICAL WORK EXPERIENCE Motivation can be explored from three different but interconnected angles. GOALS: This standpoint is concerned with the reason for our actions: Could it be geared towards wealth acquisition, gaining and maintaining status symbols as well as power. Is our behaviour propelled towards the accomplishment of pre-determined goals? To satisfy and understand this questions a study of content theories of motivation is necessary. DECISIONS: What determines our choice to chase these pre-determined goals? This perspective sees motivation in relation to the process of making decisions that influence our set goals. To gain insight into probable answers to these questions requires the study & application of process theories of motivation. INFLUENCE: How can employees be encouraged to work harder through motivation? How can managers normatively influence employees to perform well and exhibit desired behaviour? This is where job enrichment theories come into play.
DRIVES AND MOTIVES
DRIVES: This can be described as natural and biological catalysts of behaviour that are triggered by lack...