The environmental conditions conducive to effective learning.
According to Johnston and Nahmad-Williams (2009) the environment in which we live and work affects us all, Cowley (2003) echoes this and states if you live or work in a cluttered environment, you are likely to feel depressed and mentally overcrowded echoes this statement. Jenson (2009) agrees that environments either impair or support the learner and points out that there are four environmental domains in which all student learning occurs: cultural, physical, academic and social. Taking the above into account, the classroom environment should be appropriate for all learners and should establish a feeling of safety and security; this in turn will assist in receiving the desired behaviour response and achievement in academic learning. When students feel safe, they will be more relaxed and open to learning The use of the physical classroom space is essential to develop and sustain a positive and conducive environment for learning. Ginnis (2002) suggests that a constant supply of oxygen and cool temperatures are required for the brain to function efficiently. He also stresses the importance of colour, aromas, lighting and furnishings because they can affect the mood of the learner. Furthermore he encourages the use of music, believing that music has a positive effect as the brain turns music into electrical energy. Consequently the electrical energy feeds the brain. An area which is well-ventilated, spacious, open and light assists in creating a more positive mood, as a result the learners will be more relaxed and their work enhanced. Learners will also absorb information from peripheral material such as display boards,
The identification of situations likely to cause unwanted/challenging behavioural responses
Cowley (2003) states Teachers need to be aware of the emotional and psychological factors within their students and within themselves that lead to incidents of poor behaviour. (Cowley, 2003, pg 89) Boredom is one factor that can cause behavioural problems as the child will misbehave to release the boredom and to inject some fun into the lesson. Another contributing factor is the lack of motivation to learn. Crowley (2003) points out that some learners lack motivation due to the fact that they find the work too hard, perhaps because of a specific learning difficulty (Cowley, 2003, pg.91) or possibly because they misheard what is required or lack understanding of instruction. Work that is too difficult will have a direct affect on the learners’ self-esteem. Fontana (1985) argues that learners who experience repeated failure within the classroom develop a hostile feelings and rejection to formal education. Consequently if differentiation in the learning outcomes are not in place and a learner is unable to access work then repeated failure is to be expected. This in turn will just reinforce negative feelings towards education and severely affect the learners’ self-esteem. Cowley also suggests that learners lack motivation because they have never been taught that learning is important (Cowley, 2003, pg.92). The learner can be disinterested in academic subjects because of the lack of relevance to their experience to the real world. Hammersley-Fletcher (2006) agrees with Cowley but added that we all exist within a multiple set of cultures which dictate the norms of behaviour. Some cultures may operate differently to each other; therefore the same behaviour is viewed differently under different circumstances. Hence there may be a mismatch between the values of home and the values of school which some learners will find difficult to comprehend (Hammersley-Fletcher, 2006, pg 99) The way the Teacher responds to the behaviour will influence the behavioural response of the learner. The use of language, the tone of voice and body language exhibited are all contributing factors...