How much affect does a manager inflict on an organization’s outcome? There exist two traditional views about this question. * OMNIPOTENT VEIW OF THE MANAGER:
According to this view, the manager has the ultimate power. They are held responsible for the success or failures of the entire organization. * SYMBOLIC VEIW OF MANAGEMENT:
As per this view, the outcomes of the organizations are basically influenced by the external factors, whereas the manger only symbolizes control and influence. * THE TRUE FACT:
In reality, the mangers are neither omnipotent nor symbolic; their decisions are just constrained. The internal constrains are provided by the organizational culture, and the external constraints are provided by organizations environment.
CONSTRAINTS ON MANAGERIAL DISCRETION:
There are two basic characters that can be classified as the parameters of the organizational discretion. * Organizational Culture
* Organizational Environment
* WHAT IS MEANT BY AN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:
The organizational culture is basically “The way things are done in an organization”; the general attitude or behavior that the people of an organization adapt. These are the shared values, principles, traditions, and the ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act.
* FACTORS AFFECTING THE STRENGTH OF AN ORGANIZATION:
The factors which influence the strength include
* Size of the organization,
* Age of the organization,
* the rate of employee turnover,
* Strength of the original culture, and
* Clarity of cultural values and beliefs.
* DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STRONG AND WEAK CULTURES:
Strong cultures Weak cultures
Key values are deeply held and are widely shared. The level of commitment is more in the employees. Culture conveys consistent messages about...