This page investigates the skills, roles and functions of Management.
For any organisation to achieve the goals it has established and be successful it needs managers to correctly implement and understand the functions, skills and roles involved in the managerial process.
How these are applied will vary depending on what level of management a particular manager is involved in (high, middle, low) and the organisation.
Regardless of these two factors all management decisions focus on the efficient and effective use of resources for the benefit of the organisation, in the direction of its desired goals and/or objectives.
The Functions of Management
The four functions of management are planning, organising, leading and controlling (Davidson et al, 2009. p.13).
Planning involves reviewing the current situation and generating a plan that will allow the organisation to meet its established goals and objectives (Selley, 2009). This could entail generating a plan to increase profit and detail how this will be achieved (focus on capturing a larger market share or perhaps moving into a new market). Correct planning ensures there is a degree of focus, while also providing a structured timeline that relevant stakeholders can adhere too.
The second stage is organising, this is where management prepares for the task ahead by delegating resources and responsibilities, as efficiently and effectively as possible (Pakhare, 2011). During this stage management would consider the different departments and divisions within its organisation and provide authority and tasks as necessary.
An organisation that wants to increase its profit might use the organising stage to outline the roles of marketing (investigate and promote new market share) and separate these from the accounting department (assess the viability by calculating projected sales and expenses) while also ensuring they all have the necessary resources to complete the work. Davidson et al. defines leading as the process of getting members to work together for a common interest (2009. p.14).
Leading requires a manager to have a positive influence on people while also inspiring them to complete their jobs (making this vital in low-middle management), this in turn improves their job performance through a positive work environment (Expert Manage, 2011).
It is important to establish this positive environment to ensure that deadlines set in the initial planning stage can be met and resources are not being wasted.
The final stage in the function of management is controlling, this stage is important in the establishment of performance standards and ensuring these standards are adhered too while also taking corrective actions against deviation. If for example deadlines are not being met the manager should investigate, if they this was due to incorrect original estimates relating to the workload required, the manager could increase staffing for the particular project.
Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status.Different experts have classified functions of management. According toGeorge & Jerry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”. According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’ where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But...