Management Theory & Practice

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Stephen P. Robbins


What is an organisation?

Organisation is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose.

• Distinct purpose
• Deliberate structure
• Arrangement of people

Changing Organisation

Today’s organisations are becoming more

• Open
• Flexible
• Responsive to changes

Traditional Vs New organisation

• StableDynamic

• InflexibleFlexible

• Job focusedSkill focused

• Individual orientedTeam oriented

• Permanent jobsTemporary jobs

• Command orientedInvolvement oriented

• Managers always make decisionsEmployees participate in decision Making

• Rule orientedCustomer oriented

• Relatively homogeneous workforceDiverse workforce

• Workdays defined as 9 to 5Workdays have no time boundaries

• Hierarchical relationshipsLateral & networked relationships

• Work at organisational facility Work anywhere, anytime during specific hours


1. What are the three characteristics of organisations?

2. Why are managers important to an organisation’s success?

3. Why are organisations changing?

Classification of managers

• First line managers: are the lowest levels of management.

• Supervisors in general
• Foreman in manufacturing
• Coach of a sports team

• Middle managers: all levels of management between the supervisory level and the top level of the organisation

• Department head
• Project leader
• Plant manager
• Dean

• Top managers: responsible for making organisation-wide decisions and establish policies and strategies

• Vice president
• President
• Managing director
• Chief executive officer
• Chairman


1. How are managers distinct from non-managerial employees?

2. Why it is not always easy to determine exactly who the managers are in organisations?

3. Compare and contrast the three different levels of management.


Management: is the process of coordinating and integrating activities in order to complete them efficiently and effectively with and through other people.

• Efficiency: Doing things right – the relationship between inputs and outputs, the goal of which is to minimise resource costs.

• Effectiveness: Doing right things – goal attainment. [pic]


1. How is management a process?

2. Explain why efficiency and effectiveness are important to management.

3. Explain how efficiency and effectiveness are related.

Management functions and processes

According to Henri Fayol the management functions are:

• Planning
• Organising
• Commanding
• Coordinating
• Controlling

The above functions are condensed into the following four:

• Planning
• Organising
• Leading
• Controlling


Henry Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (late 1960s)

Interpersonal Role

1. Figurehead: Symbolic head obliged to perform a number of routine duties of legal/social nature. Example: Greeting visitors, signing legal documents

2. Leader: Responsible for motivation, staffing, training, … Example: Activities involving subordinates.

3. Liaison:...
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