Name: Taonga Emily mbuzi
Computer numb: 1021
Tutor: Mr. Muleya
Management is a process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives within a changing environment. (Kreitner R. 2007, p. 5) it has approaches, theories, principles which need to be learnt in order that we understand the nature of management properly and as would be mangers, apply them these principles to our day-to-day lives. In this assignment I will discuss the approaches (classical school approach and the behavioral historical theories) to management and their contribution to present day management. I will make use of the internet, lecture notes, modules and books for my research. The industrial revolution had major impacts on the usual way of business. As organizations became more and more complex, new and significant problems arose for which accepted business processes brought changes in the relationships of the employees to employers and to each other. The old management techniques were found to be less and less effective. New solutions had to be found. As there was no universally accepted theory of management, several approaches to the theory and practice of management arose. These approaches are based on different assumptions about behavior of people in organizations, key objectives of an organization, types of problems faced and solutions to those problems. Each of these approaches has contributed to the evolution of modern management thought and can be effective in different circumstances. (PowerPoint slide notes slides 12-24 unilus / 2012) Let us begin with the classical approach.
THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL APPROACH
These approaches developed in the early twentieth century. Its main lines of thoughts of this approach were derived from scientific management theory and administrative management and organization approach. Scientific management is associated with tailor (1856-1915). Other contributors to this approach include Henry L. Gantt, Frank Gilbreth and Lillian M. Gilbreth. The administrative management and organization approach is represented by writers such as the French management expert Henry Fayol (1841-1925), the German sociologist Max Weber (1846-1920), Chester Barnard (1886-1961), and Lyndall Urwick (1891-1983).
Scientific management by Frederick Taylor (1856-1915)
Scientific management is defined as “the kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by standards of established facts or truths gained through systematic observation, experiment or reasoning.” This approach was influenced by his philosophy of work. He believed the only way productivity could come was by developing more efficient jobs and that the continued growth of the industry could come from a complete revolution in the mental attitudes of the employees toward work. Taylor discovered that they were almost no work standards at all and no clear concepts of worker and management responsibilities. He then suggested that there is need for hiring and training the proper workers for specific jobs. Workers were placed on jobs with little or no concern for matching their abilities and attributes with the tasks they were required to do. Taylor focused on four areas; Standardization, Time and task study, systematic selection, and Training and pay incentives. (Kreitner, 2007 p37) and had principles that added to this approach effectively which are; division of labor, replacing the thumb rule with science, cooperation, management functions, planning and scheduling of work, just to mention but a few. Scientific management made jobs easier and the management more effective and productive. Time and motion- the concept of scientific analysis was introduced to the work place also. He talked of the task and bonus plan which is the foundation of many incentive plans today. And...