The classical management approaches were the first management theories focussed on developing universal standards for various situations (Campling & Pool, 2008). This approach to management arose between 1885 and 1940 in an effort to provide a rational basis for the management of organisations. It stemmed from the Industrial Revolution when people begun to work in large scale factories. Industrialisation created a need for efficient planning, organising, influencing and controlling of work activities (Pindur, Rogers & Kim, 1995). Classical management consists of two branches: scientific management and administrative management (Davidson et al, 2009). Scientific management, also called Taylorism, is centred on methods for improving productivity.... [continues]
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