* Interpersonal roles – Include figurehead傀儡, leaders and liaison聯絡activities (social skill) * Informational roles – Include monitoring, disseminating and spokesperson activities * Decisional Roles決策角色 – Include those of entrepreneur企業家, disturbance事端handler, resource allocator分配器and negotiator
MC7 integrity 忠誠, 氣節
CH5 MC5 Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
* Peer review
SQ2 Challenge for a Modern Manager
CH3 & 4 Problem Solving Skills LQ3
Definition of Conceptual Blocks (CPS)
Conceptual Blocks are mental obstacles that constrain the way problems are defined and limit the number of alternative solutions thought to be relevant. (Allen, 1986). These blocks are largely unrecognized or unconscious. Prevent a person from solving problems creatively are called conceptual blocks. Conceptual blocks are either pre-established methods or routine human actions that may result in boring or unsatisfactory solutions.
Kinds and categories of Conceptual Blocks
A. Constancy – this is the act of reusing a solution of a previous problem. This also happens when an individual only uses one approach in defining and solving the problem. i. Vertical thinking – looking into problems with only one way without considering other way ii. One thinking language – not using other languages in defining a problem
B. Commitment – this is the act of committing oneself in a set of beliefs that will work based from past experiences. Solutions used are the same solutions that were used in previous problems. i. Stereotyping based on past experiences – situation wherein present problems are the same as past problems ii. Ignoring commonalities – situation wherein an individual fails to look for common things in problems that may appear different...