Management Principles and Practice

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Table of Contents

* The meaning of Management
* Management Functions and Process
* Management Approaches
* Motivation Theory

*

The Meaning of Management
Management may be defined in many different ways:
“Management is the development of people and not the direction of things” - Lawrence A Appley “Management is defined as the process by which a co- operative group directs action towards common goals” - Joseph Massie “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources” - George R Terry “Management is principally the task of planning, co- coordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective” - James L Lundy “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control” - Henry Fayol “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and manages managers and manages worker and work” - Peter F Drucker “Management is the force which leads, guides and directs an organization in the accomplishment of a pre-determined object” - J.N. Schulze “Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals” - Koontz and O'Donnel “Management is the process and agency which directs and guides the operations of an organization in realizing of established aims” - Ordway Tead “Management is simply the process of decision-making and control over the actions of human beings for the express purpose of attaining pre- determined goals” - Stanley Vance

“Business management is a human activity which directs and controls the organization and operation of a business enterprise. Management is centered in the administrators of managers of the firm who integrate men, material and money into an effective operating limit” - Wheeler “Management is that function of an enterprise which concerns itself with the direction and control of the various activities to attain the business objectives” - William Spriegel “Management consists of getting things done through others. Manager is one who accomplishes the objectives by directing the efforts of others” - S. George “Management is the force that integrates men and physical plant into an effective operating unit” - Keith and Gubellini “The job of management is to make cooperative endeavor to function properly. A manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources” - Newman, Summer and Warren “Management may be defined as the art of securing maximum results with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum results with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee and give the public the best possible service” - John F M “Management embraces all duties and functions that pertain to the initiation of an enterprise, its financing, the establishment of all major policies, the provision of all necessary equipment, the outlining of the general form of organization under which the enterprise is to operate and the selection of the principal officers. The group of officials in primary control of an enterprise is referred to as management” - Kimball “Management is a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical planning and regulation of the operations of an enterprise, in fulfillment of a given purpose or task, such responsibility involving: (a) judgment and decision in determining plans and in using data to control performance, and progress against plans; and (b) the guidance, integration, motivation and supervision of the personnel composing the enterprise and carrying out its operations” - E.F.L. Brech “Management is a technique by means of which the purpose and objectives of a particular human group are determined,...
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