1. Power (Article and Book)
a. Meaning of Power – “The ability to influence various outcomes: or The ability to “make things happen” or “get things done” i. Individuals/Groups are presumed to have power based on the following factors: * Ability to cope with Uncertainty
* Substitutability – the lower the substitutability the greater the power. * Organizational Centrality – the more central a person/group is to an organization; the greater the power. * Role and Task Interdependence – if the activities of a person/group depend on the activities of another person/group -> the latter is considered to have greater control or power. b. Relationship of Power to Authority – Power and Authority are closely related to the concept of leadership. ii. Authority – Situations in which a person/group has been formally granted a leadership position. iii. Legitimate Power – formerly sanctioned by organization (Contractual) or informally supported by individual/group (Consensual). iv. Executive / Managerial Power – directed towards creating and maintaining an active organization – ideal of transforming the organization to it’s highest potential. c. Appointed vs. Emergent Leaders (Formal vs. Informal) d. Types of Power:
Yellow = Position Power
Red = Personal Power
Positional Power - Organization
* Appointed leaders / formal power - **Most Common Form of Power** * Easily controlled by the organization.
* Attributed to the Position rather than the individual.
* Appointed from upper level management.
1. Reward Power – The extent to which a person controls rewards another person values (Can give people things they want; satisfy needs). 2. Legitimate Power – Power granted by virtue of one’s position. 3. Coercive Power – The extent to which a person can punish or physically/psychologically harm someone else (do bad things to a person). Personal Power – Personal/Individual – Emergent (i.e. as the individual becomes acclimated to the environment they may “emerge” professionally or when there is a group that does not have an apparent leader figure, one will “emerge” naturally. * Attributed to the Individual rather than the organization. * Not easily influenced by the organization.
* Influence is “earned” or gained after “proving ones self.” Expert Power – The extent to which a person controls rewards another person values. (Can give people things they want; satisfy needs). 1. Referent Power – Exists when one person wants to be like someone else r imitates someone else. (based on admiration and respect). e. Situational Variables that can provide power.
v. Ability to cope with uncertainty
vi. Substitutability – The extent to which someone else in the organization can “Substitute” for someone else. (The lower the substitutability the greater the power). vii. Organizational Centrality – the more central a person is to the task or processes of the organization, the greater the power. viii. Role and Take Interdependence – If the activities of a person or group are dependent on that of another person/group > the latter has the power. f. Leadership Motive Syndrome – The need for power must be greater than the need for affiliation. Must refrain from being perceived as Impulsive, Coercive, or Manipulative. g. Acceptance Theory – manager's authority is derived from subordinates' acceptance, instead of the hierarchical power structure of the organization h. Power Gap – Difference between formal positional power granted and the actual power required to accomplish goals. ix. How to “Fill the Gap” >
* Acquiring Information & Ideas
* Assess Who has Power
* Good Relationships
* Interpersonal Skills
* Networks (power building tool)...