Management Operations

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Process-oriented Layout
A process-oriented layout can simultaneously handle a wide variety of products or services. It is most efficient when making products with different requirements or when handling customers , patients, or clients with different needs. A process-oriented layout is a layout that deals with low-volume, high-variety production in which like machines and equipment are grouped together.

A big advantage of process-oriented layout is its flexibility in equipment and labor assignments, also that it’s especially good for handling the manufacture parts in small batches, or job lots, and for the production of a wide variety of parts in different sizes or forms. The disadvantages of process-oriented come from the general-purpose use of the equipment.

When designing a process layout, the most common tactic is to arrange departments or work centers so as to minimize the costs of material handling. Cost is assumed to be a function of distance between departments, the objective is expressed as: i=1nj=1nCijXij

where n = total of work centers or departments
i, j = individual departments
Xij = number of loads moved from department i to department j Cij = cost to move a load between department i and department j

Staffing and Balancing Work Cells
Takt time is the pace (frequency) of production units necessary to meet customer orders. Takt time = Total work time available / Units required
Workers required = Total operation time required / Takt time

Assembly-Line Balancing
Cycle time is the maximum time allowed at each workstation if the production rate is to be achieved. Cycle Time= Production time available per dayUnits required per day

Minimum number of workstations = i=1nTime for task iCycle time
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