1.2 Historical Perspective of OSH Development
In the early state of country development, the economic structure depended heavily on agricultural and mining based activity. The growth of these sectors introduced various hazards to workers. The Selangor Boiler Enactment in 1892 was the first legislation to address industrial safety issues. In 1913, the Machinery Ordinance was enacted to ensure safety of machinery including boiler and internal combustion engines. The Machinery Ordinance 1913 was updated in 1932 (Machinery Enactment 1932) with additional provisions on registration and inspection of machinery installation. The Machinery Ordinance of 1953 superceded all previous legislation related to industrial safety, and was enforced in all the 11 states of Malaya under the jurisdiction of Machinery Department, Ministry of Labour. Early OSH legislation, the Federated Malay States Mining Enactment of 1926 and the Rump Labor Code of 1933 included public health provisions. Both these legislation required the provision of accommodation, sanitation, medical care and services, decent working conditions and livable wages for the mine and estate workers. 1.3 Factories & Machinery Act 1967
In 1960s, the government implemented a policy to move towards industrialization. This resulted in an increasing number of workers in the manufacturing sector such as microelectronics, chemical and mineral based industries, and in later years textile and automobile industries. In order to manage the safety and health problems associated with manufacturing industries, the Factory and Machinery Act (FMA) was enacted in 1967 and enforced by the Factories and Machinery Department (previously known as Machinery Department). This Act and the regulations were the cornerstone for OSH improvement for the next three decades before the introduction of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. Although the FMA was an improvement over earlier pieces of legislation, it had some important...
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