* D. Veena
A healthy banking system is essential for any economy striving to achieve growth and remain stable in competitive global business environment. Indian banks are favorable on growth, asset quality and profitability; RBI and Government have made some notable changes in policies and regulation to help strengthen the sector. These changes include strengthening prudential norms, enhancing the payments system and integrating regulations of commercial banks. In terms of quality of assets and capital adequacy, these banks have clean, strong and transparent balance sheets relative to other banks in comparable economies in its region. PSBs need to strengthen institutional skill levels especially in sales and marketing, service operations, risk management and the overall organisational performance ethic & strengthen human capital. Structural weaknesses such as a fragmented industry structure, restrictions on capital availability and deployment, lack of institutional support infrastructure, restrictive labour laws, weak corporate governance and ineffective regulations beyond Scheduled Commercial Banks (SCBs), unless industry utilities and service bureaus. One of the major drawbacks of SCBs is its NPAs. The best indicator for the health of the banking industry in a country is its level of Non-performing assets (NPAs). NPAs are one of the major concerns for banks in India. It reflects the performance of banks. Reduced NPAs generally gives the impression that banks have strengthened their credit appraisal processes over the years and growth in NPAs involves the necessity of provisions, which bring down the over all profitability of banks. The Indian banking sector is facing a serious problem of NPA. The extent of NPA is comparatively higher in public sectors banks. To improve the efficiency and profitability of banks the NPA has to be scheduled. This paper deals with understanding the concept of NPAs, its magnitude and major causes for an account becoming non-performing and strategies for managing NPA in Indian banks.
* Research scholar, M.B.A., M.Phil
Banking industry in India:-
The Indian Banking industry, which is governed by the Banking Regulation Act of India, 1949 can be broadly classified into two major categories, scheduled banks and non-scheduled banks. Scheduled banks comprise commercial banks and the co-operative banks. In terms of ownership, commercial banks can be further grouped into nationalized banks, the State Bank of India and its associate banks, regional rural banks and private sector banks (the old/ new domestic and foreign). These banks have over 67,000 branches spread across the country.
During the first phase of financial reforms, there was a nationalization of 14 major banks in 1969. This crucial step led to a shift from Class banking to Mass banking. This in turn resulted in a significant growth in the geographical coverage of banks. Every bank had to earmark a minimum percentage of their loan portfolio to sectors identified as “priority sectors”. The manufacturing sector also grew during the 1970s in protected environs and the banking sector was a critical source. The next wave of reforms saw the nationalization of 6 more commercial banks in 1980. Since then the number of scheduled commercial banks increased four-fold and the number of bank branches increased eight-fold.
After the second phase of financial sector reforms and liberalization of the sector in the early nineties, the Public Sector Banks (PSBs) found it extremely difficult to compete with the new private sector banks and the foreign banks. The new private sector banks first made their appearance after the guidelines permitting them were issued in January 1993. Eight new private sector banks are in operation. These banks due to their late start have...