For the period before the 4th century A.D. our knowledge about Bengal or the territory of Bangladesh is very limited. Greek and Latin writers refer to an eastern Indian nation called Gangaridai which was very strong militarily. A few sources mentioned about a state named, Vanga in the region of south-eastern part of Bengal. However, it is assumed that on the eve of Gupta expansion in Bengal in the 4th century A.D. the country was divided into independent states. Before the Guptas, Maurya rule was also established in northern parts of Bangladesh for sometimes. But lacking historical sources we know very little about their rule. Gupta Dynasty:
By the middle of the 4th century A.D. most of independent states of Bengal came under the rule of the Gupta King, Samudra Gupta. Samatata area remained outside his empire, but was reduced to the status of a tributary state. His son and successor. Chandra Gupta the second expanded his authority to the east and is known to have waged wars against the rulers of Vanga. The development in the North and North-West Bengal:
There were several political changes in the north and north-west areas of Bengal which are described below: The Kingdom of Gaur:
Towards the beginning of the 7th century A.D. an independent kingdom of Gaur emerged in the parts of west and north Bengal under Sasanka. As an independent king Sasanka ruled in Bengal for more than 25 years. The Matsanayam period: After Sasanka the kingdom of Gaur broke away due to foreign invasions and struggle among the local chiefs. A period of more than hundred years is marked by invasions strife, political chaos and anarchy, to be termed as Matsanayam i.e. a state of lawlessness. The Pala dynasty:
Putting an end to this...