MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS
All organizations have several elements in common. The most obvious of these basic elements is a goal or purpose. The goal will vary but without it no organization would have a reason to exist. All organizations also have some program or method for achieving their goals. Organizations must also acquire and allocate the resources necessary to achieve their goals. All organizations are made up of people and depend on other organizations for the resources they need. Finally, all organizations have leaders or managers responsible for helping them achieve their goals. Organizations serve society. They are important because they are social institutions that reflect certain culturally accepted values and needs. They allow us to live together in a civilized way and to accomplish goals as a society. Organizations serve society by making the world a better, safer, cheaper and more pleasant place to live. How successful an organization achieves its objectives and satisfies social responsibilities, depends on its managers. If managers do their jobs well, the organization will probably achieve its goals. And if a nation’s major organizations achieve their goals, the nation as a whole will prosper. According to Peter Drucker, one of the most respected writers on management, “efficiency” and “effectiveness” are the essential concepts for evaluating managers. Efficiency is the ability to do things right. An efficient manager is one who achieves results that measure up labor, materials and time used to achieve them. Managers who are able to minimize the cost of the resources needed to achieve goals are acting efficiently. Effectiveness is the ability to do the right things to achieve the right goals. A manager who selects an inappropriate goal is an ineffective manager. Effectiveness is the key to an organization’s success. Management has been called “the art of getting things done through people”. This definition, by Mary Parker Follett, calls attention to the fact that, managers achieve organizational goals by arranging for others to perform whatever tasks may be necessary – not by performing the tasks themselves.
Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the efforts of organization members and using all other organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goals. Planning is the process of defining an organization’s objectives and determining how to achieve them. Managers plan today based on their assumptions about what will happen in the future. They look for the opportunities for improving their organizations and solutions to current problems in order to prevent future problems. In other words, managers plan so that organizations can move forward with the best probability of success. Once managers are armed with good plans, they must organize human and material resources to carry them out. Resources must be gathered and allocated. Gathering resources includes staffing and organizing human resources. It also includes purchasing materials, securing financing and providing facilities. “Getting organized” means much more than defining structures, assigning jobs and bringing together essential resources. “Getting organized” implies the creation of a harmonious work environment and harmony is the result of effective leadership. Leadership implies a system of inequalities in which superiors influence subordinates – in other words, managers direct human behavior to achieve organizational objectives. Several terms have been used interchangeably to describe the leadership function. These include “motivating”, “actuating” and “directing”. They all have in common the assumption that managers influence behavior. Managers have the daily responsibility “to keep things on track”. This function of steering performance toward desired results is called controlling. Managers must evaluate performance, recognize problems and make hundreds of decisions. One aspect of the control...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document