The activities of manager can be classified in to the five functions.they are Planning:Manager decides what has to be done and how it will be done this is the planning function. Organizing:Arranging for the work to be done related to planning this is called organizing function. Leadership:The manager directs and motivates people to attain the goal this is called leadership function. Control: The manager monitors work performance with respect to the goal and takes necessary action whenever work begins to deviate from the goal;this is called control function. Change(Purpose or Goal):Assessing the four functions to determine how well they,the functions,are doing and where change is needed,either to the goal or to the functions themselves. All managers at all levels of every organization perform these functions, but the amount of time a manager spends on each one depends on both the level of management and the specific organization. The above functions are followed by managers on a day-by-day basis in strict sequence.Although planning should precede the others,there is always a need to organize activities,direct people and evaluate work,regardless of sequence Managers constantly face change,which means that plans,activities,performance standards,and leadership styles must also change.Managers oversee a variety of work tasks simultaneously,and for each one they must be able to exercise any of these functions as needed.So every function comes in to play in the course of a project.
2.Depending on different functional area and managerial level of the job it is understood that there is no such process or set of management functions applies equally in all cases.Managers must be adaptable to the situation.This is called the contingency viewpoint of management.This is the latest in an evolving series of management positions and methodologies.
The earliest called the classical viewpoint,originated at the twentieth century.This held that there was one best way to manage with a corresponding set of universal bureaucratic and scientific management principles that could be applied to all situations.The classical viewpoint established formal principles for planning,organizing,leading,and controlling.In theory, the principles outline all the kinds of things managers should do.The drawback is that they ignore much of the reality of what actually happens in organizations,and therefore provide poor guidance about what mangers should do in different situations.
The 1930’s brought the behavioral viewpoint,in which the emphasis shifted from work principles to the human and social aspects of organizations.One of the early proponents of tis viewpoint,elton mayo,introduced the concept of “social man” the worker who is motivated by social needs and relationships with others,and is responsive to work group norms and pressures.The contribution of this viewpoint is that it highlighted the importance of leadership style,group dynamics,and social environment-concepts not considered by the classical theorists.But the behaviorists,like their classical counterparts,tended to look at management rather narrowly.Human organization behavior are more complex than they presumed,and many behaviorist theories concerning satisfaction,moral,and productivity are too simplistic to be of practical use.
During world war II,A third viewpoint ,called the system approach,was introduced.where the first two viewpoints sought to simplify management through concepts that would fit all situations,the systems viewpoint acknowledge complexity and casual relationships.Simply stated before managers can prescribe action,they must first understand the system and its relation with the environment.Rather than give a set of rote prescriptions about how to manage,the approach suggested ways to understand the elements and dynamics of the situation,and models to help clarify problems and identify courses of action.But even this approach could...
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