Organizations come in various sizes and shapes with the aim to perform specific functions. Generally the functions of the organization can be classified as either formal or informal (Naoum, 2001, p.1). A formal function produces a visible product that is usually consumed by the various portions of the society that normally are outside the organization. An informal function does not produce a result immediately visible to the outside society for example organizing a function (Naoum, 2001, p.1). Basically, with this both functions the organization aim is to achieve certain and specific objectives through the collection of the people and other resources (Naoum, 2001, p.1). The resources are always coordinated by a set of procedures and integrated by a form of organizational structure. The ways in which the objectives are planned and the manner in which people are coordinated and managed differ among the organizations (Naoum, 2001, p.1). In most cases the formal organizations have six common elements within them. This elements include: the operation which comprise the task and technology; the resources, comprising the human and non-human resources; the objective for both the visible and invisible products; the structure, that can be both formal and informal; the management, that include both the strategic and operational management and lastly; the environment comprising the internal and external environment that affects the organization (Naoum, 2001, p.1). Therefore, for an organization to succeed or fail, it will largely depend on the clearness of the operation and objectives, the quality of the people employed, the availability of the resources and the suitability of the structure and the management system adopted (Naoum, 2001, p.1). Moreover, in every organization, there exists interdependency of many parts that are largely departments and that no single department within the organization can achieve success in isolation (Naoum, 2001, p.1). Management
Since the 19th century, the meaning of the word management has always been investigated at length. Many people ask, what it is, who needs it and why it is necessary, (Naoum, 2001, p.11). In trying to find answers to these questions, one will discover that, almost everyone needs management in order to achieve certain individual and collective objectives, through incorporating specific techniques, systems and approaches (Naoum, 2001, p.11). Henry Fayol (1845-1925), asserts that, “management plays a very important part in the government of undertakings; of all undertakings, large or small, industrial, commercial, political, religious and others.” Fayol observes that management is an activity that is common to all human undertakings, whether in the homes, business or government. He further notes that all these undertakings require planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling and in order to function properly, all must observe the same general principles (Sapru, 2006, p.102). Management Function
With planning, it involves an exercise of examining the future and drawing up a plan of action and that unity, continuity, flexibility and accuracy are the broad features of a good plan of action (Sapru, 2006, p.103). Organizing means; building up a dual structure of human and material to achieve the undertaking and that the human and the material organization has to be consistent with the objectives, resources and the requirements of the particular concern (Sapru, 2006, p.103). With the coordination it involves working together and harmonizing all activity and effort and there has to be regular consultations to improve coordination (Sapru, 2006, p.105). Controlling consists of verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the “particular plan adopted, the instructions issued and the principles established” (Sapru, 2006, p.105). Other writers have added the social and cultural factors to the definition of...