Management by Objectives

Topics: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Management, Decision making Pages: 10 (1982 words) Published: February 25, 2013


1. Conflict is the struggle that arises when the goal-directed behavior of another person or group. Whether conflict benefits or harms an organization depends on how it is managed.

There are four basic types of conflict and combination of these that can arise in an organization. 1. Issue conflict -is usually a disagreement between two or more groups arising from differences in organizational viewpoint. 2. Intrapersonal - conflict between two individuals is based on personal differences. It may originate as an issue conflict and develop into a personality clash. 3. Role conflict – this occurs when an individual faces pressures from several sources. 4. Intrapersonal.- an individual’s value and beliefs are incompatible with its actions While the term conflict generally is associated with negative encounters, conflict itself is neither inherently good nor inherently bad. In fact, engaging in conflict can have positive effects on relationships and organizations. Consider these benefits:

• Conflict fosters an awareness that problems exist.
• Discussing conflicting views can lead to better solutions. • Managing conflict is quicker and more efficient than letting conflicts fester. • Challenging old assumptions can lead to changes in outdated practices and processes. • Conflict requires creativity to find the best outcomes. • Conflict raises awareness of what is important to individuals. • Managing conflicts appropriately helps build self-esteem. • Managing conflicts well is a sign of maturity.

• Conflicts are challenging.
• Conflicts are exciting.
• Conflicts encourage people to grow.
• Conflicts create opportunity.
Advantages: Spirit of competition drives all to excel to higher levels.

Disadvantage: The competition gets so fierce that people forget they are ultimately on the same team 2. Causes and sources of conflicts
Conflict begins in an organization when group of colleagues start gossiping, walking in factions, not taking there role essential that might leads to conflict. Three Sources of Conflict According To Robbins

1. communicational - conflicts arising from misunderstandings etc. 2. structural - conflicts related to organizational roles
3. personal - conflicts coming from individual differences. Methods of conflict management which are appropriate in one case may not necessarily be appropriate when applied to a conflict generated from another source. Common Causes of Conflict

← scarcity of resources (finance, equipment, facilities, etc) ← different attitudes, values or perceptions
← disagreements about needs, goals, priorities and interests ← poor communication
← poor or inadequate organizational structure
← lack of teamwork
← lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities

Figure 2. Conflict Process

Managing Conflict Guidelines
1) Focus on defeating the mutual problem rather than on each other. Try not to personalize the conflict; instead, view the problem as a depersonalized objective to be mutually achieved through joint problem solving. 2) Avoid voting, averaging, or trading to reach a solution. Talk things out. 3) Seek facts to resolve points of disagreement. Don't make decisions based on pure speculation, 4) Recognize that conflict can be helpful. Avoid making conflict a threatening or defense-invoking process. 5) Don't fail to recognize other's needs and positions. Avoid acting solely on behalf of your own interest. HOW DO YOU REACT TO CONFLICT?

|ADVANTAGES |DISADVANTAGES | |Postpone a crisis or conflict that you cannot deal with at |Does not resolve the problem | |the time | | |Provides "cooling-off"...
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