MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO) is a practical application of the reasoning behind the notion of goal-setting theory. MBO is a process in which employees participate with management in the setting of goals or objectives. An essential feature of an MBO program is that it involves a one-on-one negotiation session between a supervisor and subordinate in order to set concrete, objective goals for the employee’s performance. During the session a deadline is set for the measurement of accomplishment, and the paths to the desired goals. and the removal of possible obstacles are discussed. After an established period of time has elapsed (typically six months or year), the supervisor and subordinate meet again to review the subordinate’s performance using the agreed-upon goals as a measuring stick. The figure below summarizes the essential steps the MBO process. Supervisor & Subordinate Meet
Set Goals That Are Mutually Agreed On Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time-related
Work at Achieving Goals
Measure Performance after Deadline
A positive feature of an MBO system lies in its emphasis on establishing specific measurable goals. In fact, a goal is un-acceptable or inadmissible in an MBO system unless in is measurable You may think that this is impossible for all goals, especially those for those of top-level executives. Although it is difficult to set measurable goals at the higher levels of an organization, it is nonetheless possible. For example, one such quantifiable goal might be that an institutional will be ranked in the top ten by an annual polling of executives in the same industry. 0r the head coach of a college football team may set a goal of making the top 20 in the Associated Press’s coaches’ poll within the next five years. Some more typical goals would be to increase market share from 45 to 55 percent by the end of the next fiscal year, to increase annual
production by 10 percent, or to increase profits after...
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