Management as an Art and Science

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MANAGEMENT BOTH AN ART AND SCIENCE
Introduction
1.Management is a universal phenomenon. It is a very popular and widely used term. All organizations - business, political, cultural or social are involved in management because it is the management which helps and directs the various efforts towards a definite purpose. Management is a purposive activity. It is something that directs group efforts towards the attainment of certain pre - determined goals. It is the process of working with and through others to effectively achieve the goals of the organization, by efficiently using limited resources in the changing world. Of course, these goals may vary from one enterprise to another, e.g. For one airforce it may be development of a new aircraft technology for its use and for other it may be profit maximization by minimizing cost of an existing product for global marketing. Definition

2.According to experts, “Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. It is an art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals can co-operate towards attainment of group goals”. According to another school of thought in same experts, “Management is an art of knowing what to do, when to do and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way”. 3.Therefore, we can say that good management includes both being effective and efficient. Being effective means doing the appropriate task i.e, fitting the square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. Being efficient means doing the task correctly, with least possible cost and minimum wastage of resources. Management as a Science

4.Science is a systematic body of knowledge pertaining to a specific field of study that contains general facts which explains a phenomenon. It establishes cause and effect relationship between two or more variables and underlines the principles governing their relationship. These principles are developed through...
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