Management and Theory

Topics: Management, Bureaucracy, Organizational studies and human resource management Pages: 8 (2251 words) Published: December 18, 2012
Critically compare and contrast theories of management (classical, human relations, systems, contingency, Marxist labour process) Provide company / organization examples of application of these theories evident in practice.

1. Introduction -----------------------------------------------page 3

2. The four main management theories
1. The Classical theory------------------------------ ---------page 4-7 2. The Human relation theory------------------------------page 7-9 3. The system theory------------------------------------------page 9-10 4. Contingency theory----------------------------------------page 10-12

3. Conclusion-------------------------------------------------page 12-13

4. Reference----------------------------------------------------page14

Management will always be needed as long as group of people gathering, living and working together. It is no doubt that management has a long history because the common feature of human being is gregarious. It has been thousands of years since human process efficient management actions. For example, chiefs manage ethic their groups, emperors manage their countries and hierarchs need to manage their religions. As the industrial revolution made a machine based society a lot of management theories begun to be concluded by people since the 18th century. There are four main theories which are classical, human relations, systems, contingency. In addition, the Marxist labour process is the theory that comes out recently. Nowadays, management also exist in anywhere, such as, university, company and hospital etc. And all these organizations are regarding management theories as their main reference of management practice. Unquestionable, Management play a key role in almost all fields at present time, and as the globalization lead to emergency of new industries those theories become increasingly debatable. This essay will explain and analyze different management theories respectively and compare each of these theories critically. This essay is going to give out several examples of organization in which those management theories are applied in practice.

The Classical theory
In the late 19th century, the classical management theory was introduced by classical writers during industrial revolution. The classical theory emphasized on organization’s aim, common principles , hierarchy of management, technical requirements (Mullins, 2008). There are two main sub-groupings of classical theory which are scientific management and bureaucracy respectively. In the past, a large amount of classical writers believed that development of management system are able to increase efficiency and productivity. At that time approach, which can obtain and keep the high productivity of individual workers, became the emphasis. The classical writers considered that organization could obtain higher level of output through monetary motivation and could keep high productivity of workers through structuring organization technology. The major contributor of these method is Taylor.

Taylor’s Scientific management theory

Taylor (1947) considered that efficiency will be increased when a best working method is undertaken by workers just like best machine could increase productivity. He believed that ‘One best way’ could be exist in each part of task when the whole working process divided into several section scientifically. It could not be inefficient if ‘the best ways’ are applied by workers in each part of task. Therefore, companies need to find a best possible way for worker to perform their task if they wish to succeed in business and some companies really did this. For example, McDonalds, which is the biggest fast food restaurant in the world, is successful because of consistency, predicability, and short wait time for the product. According to Rizer (2000), McDonlds has its own standard of cooking products and serving...
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