Use this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.
Historical Background of Management
• Explain why studying management history is important. • Describe some early evidences of management practice.
• Describe the important contributions made by Frederick W. Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. • Explain how today’s managers use scientific management.
General Administrative Theory
• Discuss Fayol’s contributions to management theory. • Describe Max Weber’s contribution to management theory. • Explain how today’s managers use general administrative theories of management.
• Explain what the quantitative approach has contributed to the field of management. • Discuss how today’s managers use the quantitative approach.
Toward Understanding Organizational Behavior
• Describe the contributions of the early advocates of OB. • Explain the contributions of the Hawthorne Studies to the field of management. • Discuss how today’s managers use the behavioral approach.
The Systems Approach
• Describe an organization using the systems approach. • Discuss how the systems approach helps us understand management.
The Contingency Approach
• Explain how the contingency approach differs from the early theories of management. • Discuss how the contingency approach helps us understand management.
Current Trends and Issues
• Explain why we need to look at the current trends and issues facing managers. • Describe the current trends and issues facing managers.
Management with Rolls Access Code, Ninth Edition, by Stephen P. Robbins and Mary Coulter. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Management Yesterday and Today
“Deliver more based on less.” That’s the product design approach that John R. Hoke III now wants his designers to use as they create new footwear.1 As the vice president of global footwear design for Nike, Hoke leads an international team of global footwear designers responsible for dreaming up, creating, and commercializing hundreds of footwear styles each year. This new approach to sustainable design came from a corporate-wide mission called “Nike Considered,” which has been described as “an entirely new perspective, where innovation meets conservation.” (See a description of Nike Considered at www.nike.com.nikebiz/nikeconsidered.) Hoke’s team of designers isn’t afraid to push the design envelope. They’re the ones who created the radically new cushioning systems used in Nike Air and Nike Shox. They’re also the ones who designed the distinctive barefoot running sneakers called “Nike Free.” Now Hoke is pushing his team to look at nature as a guide and to “take out what is not necessary” when designing new products. So how has Hoke encouraged his team to be innovative as they “consider” sustainable design? One thing he does is send teams on “design inspiration trips.” For instance, designers have gone to the zoo to observe and sketch animals’ feet. Designers also draw inspiration from an annual trip to the Detroit car show, where they study lines, silhouettes, styling, function, and color schemes of the automobiles. Another source of inspiration came from a study of origami. As part of this learning experience, Hoke brought in an Israeli origami artist for three days to instruct the designers on paper folding. Says Hoke, “The ideas that have come from that session are phenomenal. It forced us to look deeper at flexibility and how geometry works.” Another lesson involved building an ergonomic chair out of cardboard; participants had to focus on bending and folding to hold the chair together instead of using traditional glue. Hoke then made that assignment more interesting by having the chairs judged based on whether they could hold people during a contest of musical chairs. Although being innovative is the norm with Hoke’s design team, innovation also will be...