Management and Organisation

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Introduction
The management and organizational approaches that are used by various firms play a critical role in their performance. The adopted management approach is important due to the fact that it determines the efficiency with which activities are performed. The organizational structure of the firm on the other hand determines the delegation and application of authority. The organizational structure is developed by the management. The structure facilitates effective interaction among employees and helps in directing resources towards achieving the goals of the organization. The behavior of employees is also influenced by the management and organizational approach (Mullins 3). Thus a firm will only be successful if it adopts the best management and organizational approach. This paper will focus on analyzing two management approaches namely, scientific and bureaucratic theories of management. Scientific Management Theory

This theory focuses on the analysis and synthesis of workflows. Its main objective is to improve efficiency within an organization. In order to achieve this objective, the theory proposes that scientific principles should be used in designing processes and managing workers. This theory was developed by “Fredrick Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industry” (Cook and Hunsacker 34). The theory was highly influential in the 1910s as the best management style. However, by 1920s it began to lose its popularity as new management ideas and concepts emerged. The modern organizational approaches and management styles borrow the following concepts from the scientific approach. The concepts include “logic, efficiency, mass production, rationalization, work ethic and standardization of best practice” (Cook and Hunsacker 34). The Assumptions of the Scientific Management Theory

The scientific management theory is based on three assumptions which can be explained as follows. First, it is based on the assumption that firms operate in a capitalist economy that is associated with “a free market system” (Perterson 47) in which transactions are facilitated by money. Thus the most important objective of the firms is profit maximization and improving efficiency levels. Second, the workers are expected to be rational. This means that they are supposed to work-hard in order to maximize their earnings. Besides, they are expected to prioritize the goals and objectives of the organization. Finally, organizations are supposed to increase their production capacities in order to enjoy the benefits of “division of labor and specialization of tasks” (Daft 56). The principles of the theory

The scientific management theory is based on four principles. The principles form the basis for designing processes, managing workers and improving productivity. Thus an organization that uses the scientific management approach will improve its efficiency and productivity if it follows the principles correctly. The principles are as follows. Developing a Science for Every Element of Work

According to this principle, the old rule-of-thump should be replaced by clear-cut procedures. Such procedures can be developed through a careful study of the various processes within the organization in order to “develop the one best way to do everything” (Cook and Hunsacker 45). In order to identify the best way to execute various tusks, the following steps should be followed. The first step involves choosing a given number of skilled employees and studying their work. The second step involves listing the operations and details of every task that is performed by the workers. At the third stage, a stopwatch is used to determine the amount of time used to execute each task. This process has to be repeated in order to determine the optimum amount of time for performing each task. The next step involves eliminating the tasks that are not important in relation to a given job. This helps in improving efficiency (Mullins 47). The techniques and...
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