Introduction: (Slide 1)
* Introduction to the team
This assignment will be presented by the assignment team who you will shortly be introduced to. During the presentation the following topics will be covered: * What is meant by the term ‘Scientific management’
* Advantages and disadvantages of adopting Scientific management * An explanation and example of Marlow’s hierarchy
* The use of Locke’s goal-setting theory and Herzerg’s 2 factor theory to motivate employees at work * Summary
Where did Scientific management come from? (Slide 3)
* Scientific Management is largely attributed to Frederick Winslow Taylor. (1856-1915) Frederick Winslow Taylor was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regarded as the father of Scientific Management. As a result;
* Scientific Management is often referred to as Taylorism The term Taylorism became popularly used to describe scientific management, and the use of Taylors approaches became increasingly widespread, Henry Ford most famously adopted and developed his principles.
What is scientific management? (Slide 4)
* To place management in control of production by using scientific logic to identify and individualise tasks undertaken to produce a product Previous to the introduction of scientific management it was often found that workers were in control of the production of products in so much that workers decided the best way or the way that the process would be conducted. If mangers are to perform efficiently then they need to understand and control the production. * To provide workers with detail specification for the task and with financial reward based on the volume of work Taylor believed that workers would perform to financial rewards and managers should be responsible for providing detailed instruction/specification on how they should carry out the tasks
Taylors Principles (Slide 5)
Taylor laid out 5 principles of scientific management;
* A clear division of tasks and responsibilities between management and workers. Tasks and responsibilities were divided between workers and management. Managers were responsible for how the work is done, planning, scheduling, methods and training. While the workers, were responsible for the execution of the tasks. * Use of Scientific methods to determine the best way of doing a job. In order to scientifically determine the optimal way to complete a job Taylor performed experiments that he called time studies. These studies were characterized by the use of a stopwatch to time a workers sequence of motions with the goal of determining the one best way to perform a job. * Scientific selection of the person to do the newly designed job. Workers that possessed skills and abilities that matched the needs of the task were carefully chosen for each job, by the management. * The training of the selected worker to perform the job in the way specified. Workers were to be developed and trained. It was managements task to not only engineer a job that can be performed efficiently but also to train the workers as to how the work is to be performed and for updating practices as better methods were developed. * Surveillance of workers through the use of hierarchies of authority and close supervision. Taylor advocated functional foremanship for achieving ultimate specification. This technique was developed to improve the quality of the work as a single supervisor may not be an expert in all aspects of work, therefore workmen were supervised by a specialist foreman.
(Organizational Behaviour, David A. Buchanan & Andrzej A. Huczynski, seventh edition 2010, Published by Pearson Education Limited)
What did Taylor do? (Slide 6)
* Taylor deskilled tradesman by dividing tasks into smaller processes Some people believed this to be dehumanising, comparing human workers to that of machines * Each process was...