From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Management (disambiguation).
Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.
Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a prerequisite to attempting to manage others. Contents
* 1 Etymology and Definitions
o 1.1 Theoretical scope
* 2 Nature of managerial work
* 3 Historical development
o 3.1 Early writing
o 3.2 19th century
o 3.3 20th century
o 3.4 21st century
* 4 Topics
o 4.1 Basic functions
o 4.2 Basic roles
o 4.3 Management skills
o 4.4 Formation of the business policy
+ 4.4.1 Implementation of policies and strategies + 4.4.2 Policies and strategies in the planning process o 4.5 Levels of management
+ 4.5.1 Top-level managers
+ 4.5.2 Middle-level managers
+ 4.5.3 First-level managers
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
 Etymology and Definitions
The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle, especially tools), which derives from the Latin word manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Some definitions of management are:
* Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials and money. According to Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. Nevertheless, innovation is also linked to marketing (product innovation is a central strategic marketing issue). Peter Drucker identifies Marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are generally understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge.
* Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise when given the authority by the shareholders. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firm's resources to achieve the policy's objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms, the board of directors formulates the policy that the chief executive officer implements.
 Theoretical scope
At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol (1841–1925) considers management to consist of six functions: forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.
Another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". She...