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Societal, Sustainable and Green Marketing
Dr C.Raftopoulou

Overview of the lecture
• Development of societal marketing • Contemporary consumer trends and implications • Societal marketing: definition, degrees of adoption and elements • Green marketing & relevant strategies

Historical development of marketing
• 1900-1930: production orientation • 1930-1950: sales orientations • 1950 onwards: market orientation • 1970s: marketing as a societal process

Forces that drove the societal marketing concept
• Consumerism • 60’s and marketing

Implications of consumerism
• Consumers have the right to influence marketing practices - enhancing quality of life • Implications for marketers?

Some early achievements…
• • • • Customer relations departments Repair services Telephone help lines Product guarantees

Current developments

Ethical consumption
• …“the conscious and deliberate choice to make certain consumption choices due to personal moral beliefs and values” (Crane and Mattens 2007, p. 341) Sustainable consumption: • “the use of goods and services that respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life, while minimising the use of natural resources, toxic materials and emissions of waste and pollutants over the life-cycle, so as not to jeopardise the needs of future generations” (Crane and Mattens 2007, p. 347)

Why ethical consumption?
• Consumption:
• • • • • • • • Self image (Newholm 2000) Globalisation Rise of transnational corporations and brands Rise of campaigning pressure groups The social and environmental effects The effectiveness of campaigning The growth of CSR Consumer sovereignty

Consumer sovereignty
• Depends on:
• Consumer capability • Information • Choice

Ethical consumer practices
(Harrison, Newholm, Shaw 2007, p.3)

Ethical Consumer Practices

Aerosol products, refrigerators


Positive buying
Fully screened Relationship purchasing

Fair trade products
Green consumer Guide, Which? Consumer supported agriculture Individual consumers’ relationship with shopkeepers

Anti-consumerism or Avoiding unsustainable sustainable consumerism products (e.g. cars) DIY alternatives

Ethical consumption driving marketing practices

• Apple criticized by some environmental organizations (Greenpeace) for not being a leader in removing toxic chemicals from its new products, and for not aggressively or properly recycling its old products. Reaction?

CSR and marketing: societal marketing
First introduced by Kotler (1972): • Basic elements of marketing concept: • Customer satisfaction • Profitability • Long-run consumer welfare

Societal marketing
• Broadens the “audience” considerations • … ‘a form of strategic market planning in response to societal criticism about the ills of marketing’ (Fine 1980) • …marketers should influence consumer decisions through the design and implementation of a socially responsible marketing mix

Societal marketing orientation
(Dawson 1969)

• Widening of business concerns on three levels:
• Internal environment • Proximate environment • Ultimate environment

…belief that what is good in the long-run in society is good for business

• … ‘to see UK businesses taking account of their economic, social and environmental impacts, and acting to address the key sustainable development challenges based on their core competences wherever they operate – locally, regionally and internationally’ • Malcolm Wicks, Minister for Corporate Social Responsibility

Degrees of CSR adoption
• Caroll (1981)

Kotler’s 4 types of products
Immediate satisfaction Low High High Salutary products Desirable product

Long-run consumer welfare

Low Deficient products Pleasing products

• Some examples

Ethical strategic planning
Robin and Reidenbach 1987, p/52

Mission statement and ethical profile Identify affected publics Develop actionable ethical core values Enculturateintegrate core values...
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