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© 2012 University of South Africa All rights reserved Printed and published by the University of South Africa Muckleneuk, Pretoria PYC2605/1/2013–2015 98906798 Indesign

Power Course

CONTENTS

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Contents

INTRODUCTION Word of welcome Purpose of the module Outcomes of the module What’s in it for me? Learning approach of the module Which kind of traveller are you? What you need for the journey Preview of the course Choose your route THEME 1 – KNOWING THE CHALLENGE Emerging issues STUDY UNIT 1: HIV AND AIDS: A BRIEF HISTORY Travel pointers Picking up useful words 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 The birth of a new epidemic The origin of the virus The global Aids epidemic The world’s response to the Aids epidemic Mementoes and skills to take home

xi xi xi xi xii xii xiii xiv xiv xvii 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 6 7 7 9 9 9 10 11 13 14

STUDY UNIT 2: HIV AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Travel pointers Picking up useful words 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 The immune system The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Introducing your recommended book Mementoes and skills to take home

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STUDY UNIT 3: TRANSMISSION AND PREVENTION Travel pointers Picking up useful words 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 How is HIV transmitted? Who is to “blame” for the spread of HIV? Poverty, disempowerment and HIV How HIV is NOT spread Prevention of HIV infection Going the extra mile – for the eager students Mementoes and skills to take home

15 15 15 16 20 22 24 25 26 27 28 28 28 29 32 35 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 43 44 44 45 49 50 51 52 52 52 53 54 61

STUDY UNIT 4: HIV-ASSOCIATED SYMPTOMS AND DISEASES Travel pointers Picking up useful words 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 A special relationship The symptoms of HIV infection The prevention of opportunistic infections The TB/HIV link Many sides to MDR-TB STIs and HIV – a deadly combination Sizwe’s story: illness from another perspective Going the extra mile – for the eager students Mementoes and skills to take home

STUDY UNIT 5: HIV TESTS Travel pointers Picking up useful words 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Do I need to know my HIV status? Which HIV test should we take? Guidelines for HIV counselling and testing Sizwe’s story: testing day Mementoes and skills to take home

STUDY UNIT 6: ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY Travel pointers Picking up useful words 6.1 6.2 6.3 What are ARVs? The why, what and how of ARVs Adherence to ART

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6.4 6.5 6.6

Using ARVs to prevent HIV infection Going the extra mile – for the eager students Mementoes and skills to take home

64 66 67 67 69 69 71 72 72 73 76 76 77 77 77 77 78 80 82 83 84 84 84 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 92 94 98 98

REFLECTION ON THEME 1 THEME 2 – AIDS EDUCATION AND EMPOWERMENT Emerging issues STUDY UNIT 7: THEORIES OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE Travel pointers Picking up useful words 7.1 7.2 7.6 When will people change their behaviour? Behaviour change: Beyond individual theories Mementoes and skills to take home

STUDY UNIT 8: AIDS EDUCATION Travel pointers Picking up useful words 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Practical aspects of prevention programmes Negative attitudes Teaching and facilitation Mementoes and skills to take home

STUDY UNIT 9: CHANGING UNSAFE PRACTICES Travel pointers Picking up useful words 9.1 9.2 9.3 How can sexual transmission be prevented? How to talk about sex Mementoes and skills to take home

STUDY UNIT 10: AIDS EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN Travel pointers Picking up useful words 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Children, teachers and HIV and Aids The requirements for Aids education Middle childhood and Aids education Adolescent development and HIV and Aids education Going the extra mile – for the eager students Mementoes and skills to take home

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STUDY UNIT 11: AIDS EDUCATION IN TRADITIONAL AFRICA Travel pointers Picking up useful words 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 How is illness perceived? How is sexuality perceived? How are condoms perceived? Importance of community life How can traditional beliefs be used? Mementoes and...
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