Malnutrition: Nursing Theory and Nutritional Status

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Socio Cultural Determinants that Affect Nutritional Status (of elderly above sixty years of age and children below five years of age) in Barangay Banga, Talisay, Batangas

The effects of malnutrition on human performance, health and survival have been the subject of extensive research for several decades and studies show that malnutrition affects physical growth, morbidity, mortality, cognitive development, reproduction, and physical work capacity. Malnutrition is an underlying factor in many diseases in both children and adults, and it contributes greatly to the disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Malnutrition is caused by various factors, which includes an individual's vulnerability to health disorders due to fragile physical health conditions and different lifestyles. The first category, wherein physical health conditions determine an individual's vulnerability to malnutrition, is aptly related to infants, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. Factors that contribute to malnutrition are many and varied. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the level of malnutrition and the impact of some socio cultural factors of households on the nutritional status of children under five years of age and the elderly in Barangay Banga, Talisay, Batangas. The factors included are the demographic profile of the respondents such as age, sex, weight, number of siblings, marital status, income and occupation of the parents, socio-cultural factors such as eating habits, physical activity, religion and educational attainment. The Reference standard used is the Body Mass Index (BMI) since the study is a cross-sectional descriptive survey using a structured questionnaire and measurements of weight and height. This study examines the relationship between nutritional status, as indicated by BMI, and to determine the socio cultural factors affecting under-nourishment or over-nourishment of the target population.

In addition to determine malnutrition among the elderly, Geriatric Depression Scale or GDS, a self-report assessment used to identify depression in the elderly, is used to assess well being. The simplicity of GDS enables the scale to be used with ill or moderately cognitively impaired individuals. The scale is commonly used as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. While objective measurement of well being is commonly performed in research settings, it is not currently part of routine clinical practice that may reflect inaccuracy, unreliability and inapplicability of existing measures of well being in a clinical setting, owing to the lack of a uniform definition of well being. A documented relationship between BMI and well being would support and emphasize the importance of assessment of nutritional status in older people, facilitate the assessment of well being by using a well known and simple measurement and suggest a potentially modifiable factor for the enhancement of well being. Socio cultural determinants that affects nutritional status in Barangay Banga, Talisay, Batangas

Statement of the Problem
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents with regards to the following personal variables:
1.1 Age
1.2 Sex
1.3 Weight
1.3.1 Present Weight
1.3.2 Weight at Birth
1.4 Height
1.5 Income
1.6 Occupation
1.7 Marital Status
1.8 Number of Siblings
2. What are the socio cultural factors in the community as the following:
2.1 Eating Habit
2.2 Type of Food
2.2.1 Protein
2.2.2 Carbohydrates
2.2.3 Fruits
2.2.4 Vegetables
2.3 Physical Activity
2.4 Educational Attainment
2.5 Religion
3. Is there a significant relationship between socio cultural factors and nutritional status?


This conceptual framework is based on the transcultural nursing theory of Madeleine Leininger which focuses on the comparative study and analysis of different cultures and subcultures in the world with respect to their caring values,...
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