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IDENTIFY AND DISCUSS WITH RELEVANT EXAMPLES ANY TEN (10) RESOURCES USED IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES AT PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

BEING A PAPER PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF COURSE WORK ON EDSS803 (SOCIAL STUDIES RESOURCES AND INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES)

BY

SALIHU JA’AFAR JAMILUM.ed/EDUC/2820/2011-2012

LECTURER:
DR. H.I. BAYERO

DEPARTMENT ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION, FACULTY OF EDUCATION, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA

AUGUST, 2012
ABSTRACT
This paper identified and discussed ten (10) resources and instructional aids used in teaching social studies at the primary and secondary school levels. The paper looked briefly at the concept of instructional resources and also went further to discuss deeply on social studies resource materials. The types of instructional materials that can be used for teaching are discussed in the paper. Also, guidelines on the selection of social studies resources for primary and secondary schools as well as the importance of social studies resource materials in teaching were provided. Lastly, the conclusion of paper stresses the importance of the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning process.

Introduction
The human sense organs are gateways to learning. When learners are made to see, hear, feel, smell and even taste, there is a higher degree of getting them to understand and appreciate subject matter taught. The more of the senses of the learners the social studies teacher is able to stimulate and bring to bear on issues taught, the greater would be the attainment of stated objectives in the learning domains. Materials and resources can very effectively be utilized to accomplish this purpose. Too often social studies lessons have been described as boring, uninteresting and unchallenging. This negative and uninspiring state can be turned around through the identification, collection, preparation and utilization of instructional materials and resources (Ololobou, 2010). Research evidence in ASESP (1994) cited in Ololobou (ibid) portray that individuals learn and remember; 10% of what they hear

15% of what they see
20% of what they hear and see
40% of what they discuss with others
80% of what they experience directly
90% of what they attempt to teach others
The increase in the percentage of what is learned and remembered is greatly influenced by the judicious use of materials to task the various organs of the learners. Thus, Njoku (1980) advised that the modern day teacher should not attempt teaching social studies without a careful selection and use of instructional materials. This paper therefore examines the resources that can be suitably employed by the social studies teacher at the primary and secondary school levels to promote effective teaching and learning.

Meaning of Instructional Materials and Resources
Instructional materials are all the objects, things, people and places used to promote the teaching and learning of social studies. The organized combination and utilization of materials, facilities, equipment and people ease the presentation of content for the realization of stated objectives. Olaitan and Agusiobo (1988) considered instructional materials as any device, piece of equipment, graphic representation and illustration designed and used to help learners learn meaningfully. In addition, Jacob (1999) stated that instructional materials are anything and anybody that can be used by the teacher and learners before, during and after the lesson to facilitate the achievement of objectives. In other words, instructional materials are devices that facilitate the transmission, understanding and appreciation of concepts, skills, values and attitudes. The reason is that, the uses of such materials task the various sense organs of the learners, encouraging their active participation in the instructional process. When learner are opportune to contribute in the instructional process through their various senses,...
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