Malia's Papers

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  • Topic: Scientific method, Research, Science
  • Pages : 111 (26448 words )
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  • Published : October 31, 2011
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Name __________________________________________________________

Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 1

1.A(n) _______________ is an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena.
a.theoryc.operational definition
b.hypothesisd.experiment

2.An ideal scientist should:
a.not express skepticism of new ideas.c.not support falsifiable theories.
b.rely on scientific intuition.d.be willing to make “risky predictions.”

3.An advantage of naturalistic observation is that:
a.it shows whether two or more variables are related.
b.firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn.
c.it is often useful in the first stages of a research program.
d.it provides a large amount of information on large numbers of people.

4.An advantage of correlation is that:
a.it shows whether two or more variables are related.
b.firm conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn.
c.it is often useful in the first stages of a research program.
d.it provides a large amount of information on large numbers of people.

5.Which of the following methods would be most appropriate to study the effects of alcohol consumption on
problem-solving ability?
a.Correlationc.Case study
b.Experimentsd.Naturalistic observation

6.The variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiment is the:
a.control variable.c.dependent variable.
b.independent variable.d.experimental variable.

7.The purpose of a double-blind study is:
a.to eliminate experimenter effects.c.to test the effects of a placebo.
b.to increase experimental effects.d.to determine the visual ability of newborn infants.

8.Descriptive statistics:
a.organize and summarize research data.
b.allow determination of statistical significance.
c.allow researchers to draw inferences about their results.
d.show how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely by chance.

9.Meta-analysis is used to:
a.determine statistical significance.
b.combine results from several studies.
c.determine the probability of chance affecting the results.
d.maintain ethical standards in research.

10.APA ethical standards require researchers to:
a.avoid double-blind studies.c.limit the use of volunteers as subjects.
b.avoid the use of deception.d.obtain informed consent from subjects. Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 1
Answer Key

1.aExplanation: This is the definition of a theory. (Page 37, Factual)

2.dExplanation: Scientists should be willing to make “risky predictions.” All the
other choices are the opposite of ideal characteristics of scientists. (Pages 37-38,
Conceptual)

3.cExplanation: Naturalistic observation is important early in the research process to
generate hypotheses, but it does not test hypotheses. (Page 56, Conceptual)

4.aExplanation: Correlation is a technique used to measure the strength and
direction of a relationship between two or more variables. (Page 56, Conceptual)

5.bExplanation: Since this example is looking for a cause-and-effect relationship,
experiment is the only appropriate method. (Page 61, Applied)

6.bExplanation: This is the definition of an independent variable. (Page 52, Factual)

7.aExplanation: Double-blind studies are used to eliminate possible bias and
experimenter effects. (Page 55, Factual)

8.aExplanation: Descriptive statistics organize and summarize results, while
inferential statistics help to determine whether results are significant. (Page 57,
Factual)

9.bExplanation: Meta-analysis is a statistical technique for combining the results of
multiple studies. (Page 62, Factual)

10.dExplanation: APA ethical guidelines require the use of informed consent to
protect research subjects. (Page 63, Factual)

Name __________________________________________________________

Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz 2

1.A(n) _______________ is a...
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