Malaysian Studies - Ethnic Relations

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•Concepts of Unity and Integration
•Concept of Plural Society
•Ethnic Relations in Malaysia
•Theory of Racial Relations
•History of Ethnic Relations
•Forms of Ethnic Relations
•National Integration Problems
•Obstacles to National Integration
•Causes and Reinforcing Obstacles to Integration
•The strive towards Unity and National Integration
•Political Efforts
•Economic Effort
•Social and Cultural Effort
•The Basis of Racial Unity in M’sia
•Sharing of Political Power
•Democratic Govt
•Sound Economic Growth
•Cultural Compromise
•Method to Achieve National Integration
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Concepts of Unity and Integration
•Unity generally to the uniting of various groups that have different social and cultural backgrounds, into one physical entity •Union that is external in form
•Done through regulations
•Integration is a process of uniting groups with different backgrounds into one entity bound by common norms, values and interests •A sense of belonging, a process that takes place as a result of inner ties, that is, ties of feelings between people themselves •A sharing of heart and mind that goes beyond cultural and ethnic difference  

 
Furnival’s Concept of Plural Society
•Different culturally, politically and economically
•Furnival quote (pg. 163)
•“…they mix, but they are not integrated…”
 
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Ethnic Relations in M’sia
•Degrees of ‘nearness’
•Segregation (Low integration)
•Accommodation
•Acculturation
•Assimilation
•Amalgamation (High integration)
 
 
Segregation

 
 
Accommodation

 
 
Acculturation

 
 
Assimilation

 
 
Amalgamation
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History of Ethnic Relations
•Five stages of change
1.Co-existence
2.Frequent External Contact
3.Compromise
4.Unity
5.Integration
 
 
Two possibilities
1.Plurality should be protected
•Unity in a plural society
•“Malaysian Malaysia”
2.Assimilate or die.
•Same language, values and way of life, education
•Intermarriage
 
“If ethnic consciousness is strong, then national consciousness will be weak.”  
 
Forms of Ethnic Relations
•Conflict
•May 13, 1969
•World War 2
•Competition
•In education (student quotas), employment
•Cooperation
•Political arena (BN, PKR)
•Struggle for Independence
•Fight against Communists
•‘Ganyang Malaysia’
 
 
National Integration Problems
1.Prejudice
•Based on generalizations, evidence that is not concrete
•“Bad Expectations” of other races
2.Communalism
•Favouring one’s own ethnic community
•Tension in relationships w other ethnic groups
3.Ethnocentrism
•One’s own belief that one’s own culture is superior
•Eg. Hitler Clip
 
 
 
•All these “feelings inside” add up to: DISCRIMINATION.  
 
Causes of Discrimination
•Ignorance of other ethnic groups
•Process of socialization limited to within ethnic groups
•Communal Politics
•Socio-economic difference
•Cultural Difference
•Segregation Or Physical Separation
 
 
Striving Towards Unity and Integration
•Political Efforts
•Special Rights
•Assistance
•Sedition Act aimed at “preventing an individual from raising sensitive issues in public” •Position of Malay as the official language
•Position of the Malay rulers
•Status of Islam as the official relgiion
•Special rights of the Bumiputra
•Citizen rights of the non-Bumiputras
 
 
Striving Towards Unity and Integration
•Economic Efforts
•Govt. “Five Year Plans”
•Aim: Economic Equity among the races and reduce “identification of race by economic activity” •Creating Malay entrepreneurs to help them control at least 30% of the country’s economy (+ quotas, contracts, loans, employment options, etc) •Development agencies (ie. Land Development): FELDA, FELCRA, RISDA. •Aim: Uplift the community’s social and economic standing  

 
Striving Towards Unity and Integration
•Social and Cultural Efforts
•Education curriculum
•1971, ‘National Culture’ introduced- founded upon the Malay culture with incorporation of elements from other cultures •Use of Malay...
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