Malaysian Studies

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Part 1: HISTORY OF INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT
TRADITIONAL MALAY KINGDOM
The ancient history of Malaysia spans four main phases: 1. PALEOLITHIC AGE (early stone age), 35000 YEARS AGO 2. MESOLITHIC AGE (middle stone age), 11000 YEARS AGO
3. NEOLITHIC AGE (new stone age), 5000 YEARS AGO
4. METAL AGE, 2500 YEARS AGO

EARLY INHABITANTS




The earliest ancient civilization found at Tampan Fort, Ulu Perak to be 74, 000 years old and believed to associate with a Java man.
The finding of a human skull of 15-year-old boy in Niah Caves proved the existence of inhabitants to be 35, 000 years old.
The earliest inhabitants in Peninsular Malaysia were orang asli/ the aborigines, from the ethnic group of Negrito of the Semang and Jakun tribes, where as, Punan in Sarawak and Rungus in Sabah.

TRADITIONAL MALAY KINGDOM






Since 5,000 years ago, several places in Malaysia, especially those along the seashores or river mouths, grew to become very important ports for local residents and the rest of the world. This is because Peninsula Malaysia is located at the crossroad of Chinese, Indian and Arabian trade routes.

Besides that, Malaysia’s natural resources attracted many foreign merchants especially from Arabia, China and India. Our “precious natural resources” already make known to the early foreign traders, like tin and gold.

Powerful Malay Kingdoms existed in the Malay Archipelago since the early part of the first century.

Kingdom
Chi-Tu,
Tanah
Merah
Kelantan

Year
th

6 century
A.D.

Location
Academic opinion
favours the interior of the
state Kelantan.
Most favoured position
is the northern part of the
Malay Peninsular., upper
region of the Kelantan
River.
Kelantan River obvious
choiceas it is a major
waterway.
This region has been
inhabited for at least 8000
yrs. ago. – Gua Cha.

Particulars
“Red Earth Land” or Tanah Merah
( the colour of the soil is mostly red).
Detailed description appears in the
Chinese Chi tu guo ji, a
documentary accounting of a visit to
the kingdom by Sui envoys from 607
AD to 610 AD.
W as ruled by a family known as Chu
dan. The founder of this kingdom
was believed to be Raja Gautama.
The kingdom had an organized
system of administration with the
king had an absolute power.
Monarchy system.
He was assisted by 3 ministers in
the administration of the kingdom.
W as influence by Hindu style of
ruling especially the Srivijaya’s.

Old Kedah,
Lembah
Bujang

5th – 13th
century A.D.

The Bujang Valley of
south Kedah
The Bujang Valley
extends from Gunung

Also known as Cheh-Cha
The Malaysia’s richest archeological
region.

Jerai in the north to the
Sg. Muda in south and the
strait of Melaka in the
west.

Bujang Valley is very important in
the early history of Kedah based on
2 sources:
i)

Archeological

evidence

ii)

Writings by Chinese and Arab
sailors/traders and also from Indian
literature.
From the archeological evidence
proved the existence of an ancient
polity from the early century of
Christian era.
It was probably the kingdom of
Qiezha mentioned by Yiqing (ITsing), a 7th century Buddhist pilgrim from China.
The same as that known to the
Tamil as Kadaran, Kidaram or
Kalagam, called Kataha in Sanskrit.
As Melaka the Bujang Valley
developed into a collecting centre for
the products of the Malay Peninsular
th
And by 7 century It evolved into an
entrepot.
The original capital of this
kingdom was at Sg. Mas before it
was transferred to Bujang Valley.
Products: gold, tin, black pepper,
and forestry products.
Religious belief- Buddha and
Hindu (based on the temples (candi)
found in both areas.
In 670 AD, became under the
influence of Srivijaya, but still
retained it entrepot status.
th
At the end of the 11 cent.,
Srivijaya declined and the Bujang
Valley regained its power. It was still
in existence in the 14th century. But
declined with the coming of Islam
and the rise of...
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