Malaysian Legal System Introduction to Law

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 UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA-FAKULTI FILEM TEATER & ANIMASI-ZOOM NOTES MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM+INTRODUCTION TO LAW
 
Sources of Law: statutes, law reports, text books, religious beliefs, local customs, opinion of jurists   Law & Morality:Overlaps/Differs from Society e.g-gayism/illicit samsu-S’wak/P’sular   Law & Justice:Uphold justice & depends on locality e.g rampancy   Federal Constitution (lex locci)/ Written Constitution   Highest Law of the land

  Malaysian/human rights/liberty
  Any laws against the Federal Constitution-null & void   e.g: retrospective penal provision/trial by the same offence/represented by a           legal practitioner – 24hrs
 
MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM-MAXIM:CHECK & BALANCE/MONTESQIEU
  JUDICIARY
  EXECUTIVE
  LEGISTLATIVE
 
TYPES OF LAW:
  Written Law-e.g.acts/Unwritten Law- e.g. courts decicion   Public Law e.g.criminal law / Private Law e.g. contract law   Binding Precedent:Higher Court binds the lower
  PersuasivePrecedent:Courts of the same level: persuasive  
LAW OF CONTRACT
 ELEMENTS:-
1.            Offer
To be distinguished from ‘invitation to treat’:Advertisement 2.            Acceptance
3.            Intention to create legal relationship Mere promise for lunch treat is NOT binding
4.            Consideration
         Except: Natural Love & Affection:e.g.Father to Son 5.            Certainty
6.            Capacity-Sound Mind
 

MINOR
General principle is not binding & restricted to the followings:     contracts for necessaries –eg: contracts to have food, clothes & purpose of education.     contracts for scholarship – a scholarship agreement  is valid.     contracts for insurance – under the Insurance Act,1963, an infant over the age of 10 may enter into a contract of insurance. H/e, if he is below 16, he can only do so with the written consent of his parents or guardian.  

CONTRACT:
VALID:             SAH
VOID:               BATAL
VODABLE:         BOLEH BATAL;
VOIDABLE:If proven the existence of these elements:
    COERCION (paksaan)
    UNDUE INFLUENCE (tidak sewajar atau sepatutnya)
    FRAUD (penipuan)
    MISREPRESENTATION (gambaran yang salah)
    MISTAKE (kesilapan)
 
LAW OF TORTS
 
ELEMENTS:DUTY OF CARE- NOT TO BREACHED/TO ACT REASONABLY
1.           NEGLIGENCE
2.           TRESPASS
                                          Trespass to person/trespass to land / goods.                                  Trespass to persons :   Assault;
  battery; 
  false imprisonment.
 
              “TRESSPASSERS SHALL BE LIABLE NOT PROSECUTED”  
3.           NUISANCE
                                                 i.    public nuisance                                                   ii.    private nuisance. 4.           DEFAMATION
  LIBEL- publication
  SLANDER-words 
   
GENERAL DEFENCES (EXCEPTIONS) NEGATING LIABILITY IN TORT  : 1)  VOLENTI NON FIT INJURIA   -   
     2)   MISTAKE         
     3)   INEVITABLE ACCIDENT                                          4)   ACT OF GOD    
     5)   PRIVATE DEFENCE     .
     6)   NECESSITY
     7)   STATUTORY

CONTRACT| TORT|
2 sides/ parties| Maybe More than 2parties|
Written/Unwritten| No written aggreement required|
Remedy: Damages| Remedy: Damages|
Duty: Contractual Duty| Duty: Duty of Care|
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
COMPANY,PARTNERSHIP & SOLE PROPRIETOR
 
SOLE PROPRIETOR
 
•         SOLE PROPRIETOR-ENTERPRISE
•         REGISTRATION-LOW FEES
•         EASY TO OPERATE
•         MOST COMMON
•         BUSINESS/INDIVIDUAL/ENTERPRISE= SAME ENTITY  •         RESOURCES:OWN/FRIENDS/FAMILY
•         1 MAN SHOW
•         FAST ON DECISION-START/CEASE
•         OPERATE FROM HOME/NO OFFICE
PARTNERSHIP
 
•         PARTNERSHIP-TEAM UP;RESOURCES-TANGIBLE/INTANGIBLE •         BIGGER SCALE
•         RESOURCES-TANGIBLE/INTANGIBLE
•         POPULAR AMONG PROFESSIONALS
•         LIABILITY/PROFIT SHARED...
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