Malacanang Manila Presidential Decree No.1445

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MALACAÑANG Manila PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1445 ORDAINING AND INSTITUTING A GOVERNMENT AUDITING CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES WHEREAS, the creation and establishment of the Commission on Audit under the new Constitution and its recent reorganization and restructuring by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 898 have rendered more pressing the long-felt need to codify in revised and updated form, in keeping with modern trends of government auditing and progressive legislation on the subject, various scattered auditing laws, rules and regulations, and to incorporate therein presidential decrees, orders, proclamations, and instructions germane and relevant thereto for integrated effect; NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby order and decree: PRELIMINARY TITLE GENERAL PROVISIONS Section 1. Title. This law shall be known and cited as the "Government Auditing Code of the Philippines." Section 2. Declaration of Policy. It is the declared policy of the State that all resources of the government shall be managed, expended or utilized in accordance with law and regulations, and safeguard against loss or wastage through illegal or improper disposition, with a view to ensuring efficiency, economy and effectiveness in the operations of government. The responsibility to take care that such policy is faithfully adhered to rests directly with the chief or head of the government agency concerned. Section 3. Definition of terms. Wherever used in this Code, the following terms shall be taken and understood in the sense indicated hereunder, unless the context otherwise requires: 1. "Fund" is a sum of money or other resources set aside for the purpose of carrying out specific activities or attaining certain objectives in accordance with special regulations, restrictions, or limitations, and constitutes an independent fiscal and accounting entity. 2. "Government funds" includes public moneys of every sort and other resources pertaining to any agency of the government. 3. "Revenue Funds" comprises all funds derived from the income of any agency of the government and available for appropriation or expenditure in accordance with law. 4. "Trust funds" refers to funds which have come officially into the possession of any agency of the government or of a public officer as trustee, agent, or administrator, or which have been received for the fulfillment of some obligation. 5. "Depository funds" comprises funds over which the officer accountable therefore may retain control for the lawful purposes for which they came into his possession. It embraces moneys in any and all depositories. 6. "Depository" means any financial institution lawfully authorized to receive government moneys upon deposit.

7. "Resources" refers to the actual assets of any agency of the government such as cash, instruments representing or convertible to money, receivables, lands, buildings, as well as contingent assets such as estimated revenues applying to the current fiscal period not accrued or collected and bonds authorized and unissued. 8. "Government agency" or "agency of the government," or "agency refers to any department, bureau or office of the national government, or any of its branches and instrumentalities, or any political subdivision, as well as any governmentowned or controlled corporation, including its subsidiaries, or other selfgoverning board or commission of the government. Section 4. Fundamental principles. Financial transactions and operations of any government agency shall be governed by the fundamental principles set forth hereunder, to wit: 1. No money shall be paid out of any public treasury of depository except in pursuance of an appropriation law or other specific statutory authority. 2. Government funds or property shall be spent or used solely for public purposes. 3. Trust funds shall be available and may be spent only for the specific purpose for which the...
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