Oral Presentations are brief discussions of a focused topic delivered to a group of listeners (audiences) in order to impart knowledge or to stimulate discussion. They may be short or long, include slides or other visual aids, and be done individually or in a group. Planning and structuring an oral presentation is similar to the process of writing an essay, except you need to be conscious of a live audience and use spoken language instead of written. However, the final preparation and presentation differ significantly from editing and polishing an essay. An oral presentation consists of three main parts: the introduction, body, and conclusion. Speech is one of the 3 fundamental communication modes. The ability to communicate through effective speaking is as important to language skill development as is the ability to write effectively. To improve the pronunciation in oral presentations, we need for speech training in English. One way to learn how to pronounce words correctly is to listen to the way good speakers or English articulate them. In addition, it helps if you create a list of words and practise speaking them aloud. Pronunciation is not about acquiring a native English accent. The primary concern in learning pronunciation skills is to be able to speak clearly so that you are easily understood by the listener or audience.
2.0 SPEAKING IN A FORMAL ACADEMIC CONTEXT
Speaking in a formal academic context is becoming more important as teaching methods are trying to involve students in group works, making presentations, and participating in discussion on academic topics. Making presentations controlling discussions, and listening and note taking, it has a kind of menu where you can choose any area in which you need help or information, e.g. in the presentation it shows you how to present a seminar paper and it gives you steps to do your presentation interesting, and not confusing, so you can express to your audience what you can get help considering that English spelling and English pronunciation has a difference. Many students comment that they find working in groups difficult, because they can never contribute new and intelligent ideas to the group, so in speaking in academic context you will find help n working in groups, it mentions that if everyone contribute new ideas, the group would continue to be successful, so there it has some roles that students can follow to be successful in working as a team, for example a successful group needs a leader, someone who can come with good ideas, and see the practical uses of the other group members ideas.
2.1 Transactional Model of Oral Communication
The transactional model is a model that sees communication or negotiation of meaning in two or more parties responding to their environment and each other. This model also shows that the elements in communication are interdependent. Each person in the communication act it both a speaker and a listener, and can be simultaneously sending and receiving messages. It also describes the way in which you can use transactions in message flows to accomplish certain tasks and results. A message flow consists of the following constituents parts: • An input source
• The message flow or logic, which is defined by a sequence of nodes • Zero or more external resources that are accessed during the flow • Zero or more output target.
2.2 Academic and Professional Public Speaking Skills
Public Speaking can enhance your academic and professional skills. You will learn to be:- i. A persuasive and effective communicator;
ii. More confident and able to project a positive self-image to others; iii. More critical when analysing arguments and information given to you; and iv. Able to respond appropriately to criticisms and arguments.
2.3 Type of Audience Analysis