1. Functional Styles in Modern English
The Notion of Functional Style. Functional style as “having social relevance, functionally determined, displaying inner coherence combination of ways of usage, choice and combination of means of speech communication in the domain of a certain national language, correlated with other ways of expression of the same type, which attain other aims and fulfill other functions in the social communicative experience of the people”\V.V.Vinogradov\. Functional style as the arrangement of language means in speech ( in the text), built up as the result of the working principles of language means choice and combination in a certain sphere of communication in accordance with the tasks and conditions of communication \ M.N.Kozhina\. The extra-linguistic basis of a functional style, i.e. the tasks and aims of communication in a certain social sphere, determined by the purpose of the correlated form of public thinking, a type of mentality, current in the sphere, typical patterns of contents. Systematic character of a functional style in speech ( functional stylistic correlation of the units on the basis of common communicative purport). Functional Styles as speech systems. Functional styles as styles of language and speech. The notion of ‘register’ ( similar to that of the notion of style) , as series of situational factors, which determine the use of specific language means \G.Leech\. General classification of functional styles. Linguistic and extra-linguistic factors in the classification of functional styles. The role of extra-linguistic factors in style studies ( the Prague Linguistic Circle). Style – forming factors of a functional style. Universal, normative-stylistic character of the style-forming factor of a functional style (emotiveness, evaluation, rationality, imagery, logic, exactness) and their difference in accordance with the purport of communication. Functional analysis of the style-forming factors of a functional style \ V. Shneider\.. Problems of the Functional Styles Classification. Reasons for recognizing the style of fiction \ the belles-lettres style \ : pros and cons. Cons: the language of fiction is multi-stylistic, not closed, it integrates other functional styles of the language, has no specific language markers; the aesthetic function the language of fiction which is expressed in special use of language means with the division of styles into artistic and non-artistic or the treatment of the belles-letters style outside the system of functional styles; in Russian it is not included in the domain of literary language due to a specific character of the literary language and the formation of the latter a under the influence of the language of fiction ( V.D.Bondaletov, L.Y.Maksimov, N.A.Mezhersky, A.K.Panfiliv, D.N.Schmelev\. Pros: the language of fiction cannot be beyond the existing system of functional styles as in spite of its multi-stylistic properties it uses only part of the inventory of the elements and units of the other styles but doesn’t express its speech systemic character and their use in the aesthetic function is very specific; it has the unity of a stylistic speech system, in spite of the author’s individuality ]V.V.Vinogradov, I.V.Arnold, R.A.Budagov,I.R.Gaplerin, B.N.Golovin, A.K.Dolinin,, E.G.Risel\. So “ if functional styles should be treated as norms of speech composition there are no objections to treating the belles-letter style as one of the functional styles, in spite of its stylistic heterogeneity, the style of any text has different stylistic meanings. If we suppose that a functional style is identified on the basis of the sphere of communication and its main function, its complexity and heterogeneity shouldn’t present an obstacle” \ A.K.Dolinin\. Reasons for singling out the newspaper style in the system of functional styles \I.V.Arnold\. Newspaper style as a subsystem of publicist style...
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