Major Fields of Philosophy

Topics: Philosophy, Ethics, Logic Pages: 11 (4259 words) Published: June 20, 2013
MAJOR FIELDS OF PHILOSOPHY
Epistemology - is the branch of philosophy that addresses knowledge, especially in regards to its method, validity, and scope. It is what helps distinguish between a justified belief or claim and an opinion. Logic - is the science of correct thinking. A classic definition is new and necessary reasoning. It's new because you didn't know the item before, and necessary because a correctly formulated syllogism has to be true if the bases are true. We took two axioms and made a new and necessary conclusion. Metaphysics - Metaphysics is the philosophical study of the nature of our existence. Modern scientists consider this area as opposite to the scientific method. It is the collective processes that are beyond basic physics principles. It is also used as a word to describe using unseen forces to effect a seemingly unrelated event, person, area, etc. Moral philosophy – Moral philosophy is the area of philosophy concerned with theories of ethics, with how we ought to live our lives. It is divided into three areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Metaethics - is the most abstract area of moral philosophy. It deals with questions about the nature of morality, about what morality is and what moral language means. This section of the site contains material on cognitivism and noncognitivism, and on moral relativism. Normative Ethics - while metaethics treats the most abstract questions of moral philosophy, normative ethics is more concerned with providing a moral framework that can be used in order to work out what kinds of action are good and bad, right and wrong. There are three main traditions in normative ethics: virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism. Applied Ethics - the most down to earth area of moral philosophy is applied ethics. This seeks to apply normative ethical theories to specific cases to tell us what is right and what is wrong. In this section, various thorny ethical issues are discussed: e.g. abortion, animal rights, and punishment. Political philosophy - is the study of such topics as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics that does not necessarily belong to the technical discipline of philosophy. In short, political philosophy is the activity, as with all philosophy, whereby the conceptual apparatus behind such concepts as aforementioned are analyzed, in their history, intent, evolution and the like. Aesthetics - deals with beauty, art, enjoyment, sensory-emotional values, perception, and matters of taste and sentiment. PHILOSOPHICAL METHOD OF INVESTIGATION

Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy. A common view among philosophers is that philosophy is distinguished by the ways that philosophers follow in addressing philosophical questions. -------------------------------------------------

Methodology process 
Systematic philosophy is a generic term that applies to philosophical methods and approaches that attempt to provide a framework in reason that can explain all questions and problems related to human life. Examples of systematic philosophers include Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Spinoza, Hegel, and Ayn Rand. In a meaningful sense, all of western philosophy from Plato to the modern schools of theoretical metaphysics. In many ways, any attempts to formulate a philosophical method that provides the ultimate constituents of reality, a metaphysics, can be considered systematic...
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