Maintenance and Aftercare

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Maintenance and Aftercare
Mandy McCurdy
Southern Oregon University

Abstract
Corrections, is an ever changing field today. One goal of corrections is to rehabilitate and treat offenders so they are ready or prepared to reenter society. It is stated that, “Reentry is the process of transition that incarcerated individuals make from prison or jail to the community,” (Velasquez, 2010, p. 8). In order for any form of maintenance and aftercare to be effective, post prison and after release, there needs to be consistency as well as follow ups on the inmates while they are incarcerated and after they are released. Further, it is necessary to be able to look past a conviction and be willing to help the inmate be successful so they do not recidivate. This paper will examine the role of aftercare or maintenance, and how it can help to reduce recidivism.

Introduction
In the United States, prison reentry is a growing issue. Mulloy et al. stated, “the reentry process is about developing, implementing, and sustaining healthy relationships with the judicial offenders, their families, facilities managers and staff, and the community where they will be returning,” (2007, p. 87). These are all key components of reentry and making sure that the transition back into society is smooth as possible for the individual leaving prison or jail. Reentry is a process by which an individual or individuals become a part of society or rather a part of a community again after they have been incarcerated. There are more and more prisoners being released back into society once they have completed their sentences. Allison and Clarke state that “in the last 25 years, the nation has encountered unprecedented growth in every aspect of the criminal justice system,” (2008, p.82).There has been growth in the prisons and jails as well as other areas of corrections such as probation or parole. Growth is the expansion of something or as in this case, the criminal justice system such as prisons. This can vary from multiple angels such as going to prison to getting released back into society, called reentry. Pinard states, “The reentry crisis follows three decades of exploding incarceration rates” (2010, p. 1214). A crisis in this instance is the amount of people that have been incarcerated being released back into society after they have served their sentence and with the high numbers of people being released, a crisis is made because we have to figure out how to keep helping these individuals after they are released. The problem that society faces with reentry is following through with giving the same amount of care that they offered for treatment to prisoners while they were incarcerated. Further, this paper will examine the role of aftercare or maintenance, and how it can help to reduce recidivism.

Literature Review
The history of corrections is long and has been around for many years. The importance of corrections has defined what our society is in the respect of how it deals with offenders. Travis, Crayton, & Mukamal stated, “The Bureau of Justice Statistics state, more than 700,000 leave U.S. state and federal prisons each year” (2009, p. 38). This is a high number of individuals reentering society. They also stated that “In the last 35 years the rate of incarceration in America has more than quadrupled and the prison population now stands at 1.6 million” (2009, p. 38). The numbers of the jail and prison population has grown over the years and seems to be increasing. Pinard stated, “In 1980, fewer than 170,000 people were released…and by 2008, the number of individuals released skyrocketed to 735, 454,” (2010, p. 1213).

The concept or idea of collateral consequences has always been a part of the correctional side of the justice system. According to Pinard, “They are remnants of the civil death that was imported from England and imposed on lawbreakers during the colonial period,” (2010, p. 1214). As a result of these consequences on...
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