1. From birth to 19 years of age, children and young people tend to follow a broad developmental plan. Although children and young people are different, the way they grow and develop is often quite similar. This means we can work out a pattern for development and from this we can pinpoint particular skills or milestones that most children can do at different age ranges. Milestones describe when particular skills are achieved, such as walking, usually achieved by 18 months. These milestones have been draw up by researchers looking at children’s development and working out an average from their recordings. However as children grow older the variations between individuals grow larger.
This is especially true when it comes to learning skills such as reading or mathematics, but it is also true in terms of their emotional maturity, this makes it harder to draw up a pattern of development.
Babies at Birth
Most babies are born around the 40th week of pregnancy. Only 3% of babies arrive exactly on time. Some are a week early or a week late. Babies who are born earlier than the 37th week are known as premature. Premature babies are likely to need more time to reach the same developmental targets as babies born around the 40th week. Many people think that babies are helpless when they are born, but in reality they are born with the ability to do a quite a few things. They can recognise their mothers voice and smell. They are able to cry to let everyone they need help. They also actively learn about their new world through their senses, particularly touch, taste and sound.
These are things you may expect to observe in a new born:-
Reflexes babies are born with many reflexes, which are actions they do without thinking. Many reflexes are linked to survival. Here are some examples of these reflexes:-
• Swallowing and... [continues]
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