Main Body Systems

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The Main Body Systems
The Respiratory System
The respiratory system is one of the bodies most important systems, the main goal of the respiratory system is to provide gas exchange so the inhaling of oxygen and the exhaling of carbon dioxide. In the health and social care setting the words “respiratory rate” or “resps” are often used, this simply means how many times a person breathes in a minute this can help to diagnose problems such as asthma and other breathing related illnesses. Parts of the Respiratory System and what they do

Nose: the nose is a main part in the respiratory system as it is the main way in which gasses enter and exit the body. Your nose has two nostrils which lead to the nasal cavity the air passes through these and leads into the trachea.

Mouth: the mouth is another way for air to enter and exit the body this allows us to breathe in and out how ever the nose is the preferred way of breathing.

Trachea: the trachea is a very important part as this is where the air flows from the nose into the lungs. The trachea is made up of cartilage and ligaments this prevents it from caving in each time we take a breath.

Bronchus: the bronchus is where the air arrives after the trachea this splits into two providing each lung its own air supply. This then splits off into the Bronchi lots of little tubes are formed which spread out right across the lungs making sure the air covers the whole lung.

Lungs: the air then reaches the lungs which is where the blood is oxygenated and pumped back to the heart ready to be transferred around the body.

Alveoli: once the air has reached the lungs the oxygen exchange then happens across the membranes of the alveoli. These are small balloon like structures which are attached to the bronchial passages.

Diaphragm: this is where breathing starts the diaphraghm is a muscle which is located below the lungs. As we breathe in the diaphragm contracts this therefore creates more room for the lungs to take in more air. When we breathe out the diaphragm expands reducing the amount of space the lungs have forcing air out of the lungs this is the main muscle the respiratory system uses.

The Breathing Process
Breathing begins when you inhale air through your nose or mouth and into your lungs. As you breathe in the diaphragm expands making more space for the lungs to fill up with more air. The air then travels across the lungs and the oxygen is taken out through the alveoli and transported around the body through the use of red blood cells.

The cardiovascular system
The cardiovascular system or the circulatory system is the pumping of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood around the body. The blood: the blood is made up from a mixture of 3 things red blood cells white blood cells and plasma. The blood transports things around the body such as hormones and nutrients from our food. The red blood cells only purpose is to carry oxygen around the body. These cells have no nucleus so they cannot reproduce this is why their lifespan is usually a maximum of 90 days then they are replaced.

The white blood cells purpose is to fight infection. These cells are constantly observing the blood to ensure that unwanted bacteria aren’t present. If they detect unwanted bacteria they can defend the body in various ways by producing things such as antibodies.

Plasma within the blood takes up half of the bloods volume. 90% of plasma is mainly water however the other 10% consists of proteins, minerals, waste products, clotting factors, and hormones.

The heart
The heart has two atriums and two ventricles; the ventricle on the right receives blood from the right atrium and sends it to the lungs to pick up oxygen this is then returned to the heart by veins. The left ventricle receives blood from the left atrium the blood is then distributed around the body via the aorta. The heart never rests this is why the muscle must be strong to withstand the workload. The normal rhythm for...
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