Mahatama Gandhi

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Short Chronology of Gandhi’s Life
Source: The Gandhi Reader, edited by Homer A. Jack, Samata Books, Madras, 1984

1869

Oct. 2

Born at Porbandar, Kathiawad, son of Karamchand (Kaba) and Putlibai Gandhi.

1876

Attended primary school in Rajkot, where his family moved.

1876

Betrothed to Kasturba (called Kasturba in her old age), daughter of Gokuldas Makanji, a merchant.

1881

Entered high school in Rajkot.

1883

Married to Kasturba.

1885

Father died at age of 63.

1887

Passed matriculation examination at Ahmedabad and entered Samaldas College, Bhavnagar, Kathiawad, but found studies difficult and remained only one term.

1888

First of four sons born.

1891

Sept.

Sailed from Bombay for England to study law.

1891

Summer. Returned to India after being called to bar. Began practice of law in Bombay and Rajkot.

1893

April

Sailed for South Africa to become lawyer for an Indian firm.

1893

Found himself subjected to all kinds of color discrimination.

1894

Prepared to return to India after completing law case, but was persuaded by Indian colony to remain in South Africa and do public work and earn a living as a lawyer.

1894

Drafted first petition sent by the Indians to a South African legislature.

1894

May

Organised Natal Indian Congress.

1896

Returned to India for six months to bring back his wife and two children to Natal.

1896

Dec.

Sailed for South Africa with family. Was mobbed when he disembarked at Durban for what Europeans thought he wrote about South Africa when he was in India.

1899

Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for British in Boer War.

1901

Embarked with family for India, promising to return to South Africa if Indian community there needed his services again.

1901 – 1902

Travelled extensively in India, attended Indian National Congress meeting in Calcutta, and opened law office in Bombay.

1902

Returned to South Africa after urgent request from Indian community.

1903

Summer. Opened law office in Johannesburg.

1904

Established the weekly journal, Indian Opinion.

1904

Organised Phoenix Settlement near Durban, after reading Ruskin's Unto This Last.

1906

March

Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for Zulu "Rebellion".

1906

Took vow of continence for life.

1906

Sept.

First satyagraha campaign began with meeting in Johannesburg in protest against proposed Asiatic ordinance directed against Indian immigrants in Transvaal.

1906

Oct.

Sailed for England to present Indians’ case to Colonial Secretary and started back to South Africa in December.

1907

June

Organised satyagraha against compulsory registration of Asians ("The Black Act").

1908

Jan.

Stood trial for instigating satyagraha and was sentenced to two months' imprisonment in Johannesburg jail (his first imprisonment).

1908

Jan.

Was summoned to consult General Smuts at Pretoria; compromise reached; was released from jail.

1908

Feb.

Attacked and wounded by Indian extremist, Mir Alam, for reaching settlement with Smuts.

1908

Aug.

After Smuts broke agreement, second satyagraha campaign began with bonfire of registration certificates.

1908

Oct.

Arrested for not having certificate, and sentenced to two months' imprisonment in Volksrust jail.

1909

Feb.

Sentenced to three months’ imprisonment in Volksrust and Pretoria jails.

1909

June

Sailed for England again to present Indians' case.

1909

Nov.

Returned to South Africa, writing Hind Swaraj en route.

1910

May

Established Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg.

1913

Began penitential fast (one meal a day for more than four months) because of moral lapse of two members of Phoenix Settlement.

1913

Sept.

Helped campaign against nullification of...
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