Dylan Headrick
Honors Physics
Mr. Gillies
December 15th, 2012
Magnetic Acceleration
Magnets are one of those few wonders of science. It used to be thought that they were magic and could cure any ailment. Though they can’t cure cancer, magnets still have thousands of different uses in electronics, machining, transportation, and toys. In all of these uses, there are at least ten that rely on magnetic acceleration, the acceleration of an object caused by a string of electromagnets pushing and pulling the object in sequence. To understand this type of magnetic movement, the basic priciples of magnets must be known.

The most basic of principles behind magnetic acceleration is simply magnetism, specifically electromagnetism. There are three types of magnets, permanent, temporary, and electromagnetic. A permanent magnet is a specific metal or alloy such as the rare earth magnet neodymium, or a simple ferrite bar magnet. These types of magnets are known as permanent because their magnetic properties are not simply turned on or off. However they can be demagnetized through heat, physical impact, or randomly rubbing another magnet against it. Permanent magnets “rely on microscopic regions known as magnetic domains” (Wilson 2). These domains are normally cancelling each other’s magnetic field. Only until all of them are properly aligned, usually by stroking the object in one direction repeatedly with another magnet, do they create two magnetic poles at the ends of the object they compose. Temporary magnets rely on this same aligning of domains. However, they are only emitting a magnetic field within the presence of another magnet. An example of this would be a paper clip. By itself, it is no more magnetic than a banana. But with a bar magnet attached to it, the paper clip can pick up another object.

Electromagnetism is similar to permanent magnetism, yet it relies on the magnetic properties that electrons have on each other when moving in specific directions....

...Acceleration from Gravity on an Incline
I. Introduction:
Acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity of a moving body. Galileo was the first person to actually experiment and examine the concept of acceleration back in the seventeenth century. Acceleration can be determined by calculating the gravity and an incline. An incline is slope that is deviated between horizontal and vertical positions. Gravity is the natural force of attraction towards the center of the earth. Because of this, we are able to calculate acceleration.
II. Purpose:
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the relationship between the angle of an incline and the acceleration of a cart rolling down a ramp. Once our results were recorded, we were able to examine them to determine if our results were based upon gravity’s natural pull.
III. Procedure/Materials
First, we began by setting up our ramp and cart. We then used a motion detector and repeated our experiment five different times each with a different incline to roll the cart down. We recorded data after each time.
Lab Quest
Track
Dynamics Kit
Ring Stand
Vernier Motion Detector
Meter Stick
Calculator
IV. Data
Height, h (cm)
Length, x (cm)
Sin Ѳ
Acceleration Trial 1
(m/s2)
Acceleration Trial 2
(m/s2)
Acceleration Trial 3
(m/s2)
Average Acceleration
(m/s2)
10...

...influence the acceleration of a cart when it travels down a wooden plank?
Introduction:
What is an incline plane? Commonly referred to as a ramp or a slope, an incline plane is an even surface that is titled at an angle. An object placed on the tilted surface will often slide down the surface, accelerating because of an unbalanced force. The rate at which an object travels down the slope is dependent upon how tilted the slope is; the greater the tilt of the plane, the faster the rate which an object will slide down. Thus, if a physics cart is released on at a steep slope, the acceleration of the cart is expected to roll down the slope at a faster rate. As shown in figure 1, when a cart is released on an inclined plane, there’s always two to four forces acting upon the cart – the force of gravity (acts in a downward direction), the normal force (the support force exerted upon the object that is in contact with another stable object), the force of movement (the force from the wheels-moment of an object) and the force of friction (the force exerted by a surface as an object moves across). According to Isaac Newton’s law of Universal Gravitation, objects near the surface of the earth accelerate at a rate of 9.8m/s/s towards the ground.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the angle of inclination and the acceleration of a physics cart. This was done to determine whether if the physics...

...magnitude 50 N) is indicated. Orient the other two forces F2 and F3 so that the magnitude of the resulting acceleration of the tire is least, and find that magnitude if (a) F2 = 30N, F3= 20 N; (b) F2= 30 N, F3 = 10 N; and (c) F2 = F3 = 30 N.
problem 2 A weight-conscious penguin with a mass of 15.0 kg rests on a bathroom scale (see figure below). What are (a) the penguin's weight W and (b) the normal force N on the penguin? (c) What is the reading on the scale, assuming it is calibrated in weight units?
problem 3 If a nucleus captures a stray neutron, it must bring the neutron to a stop within the diameter of the nucleus by means of the strong force. That force, which "glues" the nucleus together, is essentially zero outside the nucleus. Suppose that a stray neutron with an initial speed of 1.4 X 107 m/s is just barely captured by a nucleus with diameter d = 1.0 X 10-14 m. Assuming that the force on the neutron is constant, find the magnitude of that force. The neutron's mass is 1.67 X 10-27 kg.
problem 4 Sunjamming. A "sun yacht" is a spacecraft with a large sail that is pushed by sunlight. Although such a push is tiny in everyday circumstances, it can be large enough to send the spacecraft outward from the Sun on a cost-free but slow trip. Suppose that the spacecraft has a mass of 900 kg and receives a push of 20 N.(a) What is the magnitude of the resulting acceleration? If the craft starts from rest, (b) how far will it travel in 1...

...Acceleration Worksheet 3
Worked Example
A cheetah running at 20 m s−1 slows down as it approaches a stream. Within 3.0s, its speed has reduced to 2 m s−1. Calculate the average acceleration of the cheetah.
Solve the following:
1. A sports car, accelerating from rest, was timed over 400 m and was found to reach a speed of 120 km h−1 in 18.0 s.
a. What was the average speed of the car in m s−1?
b. Calculate the averageacceleration of the car in km h−1 s−1.
c. What was its average acceleration in m s−2?
d. If the driver of the car had a reaction time of 0.60s, how far would the car travel while the driver was reacting to apply the brakes at this speed of 120 km h−1?
2. A bus travelling north along a straight road at 60 km h−1 slows down uniformly and takes 5.0s to stop.
a. Calculate the magnitude of its acceleration in km h−1 s−1.
b. Calculate its acceleration in m s−2.
3. A Prius hybrid car starts from rest and accelerates uniformly for 8.0s. It reaches a final speed of 16 m s−1.
a. What is the acceleration of the Prius?
b. What is the average velocity of the Prius?
c. Calculate the distance travelled by the Prius.
4. A new model Subaru can start from rest and travel 400 m in 16 s.
a. What is its average acceleration during this time?
b. Calculate the final speed of...

...Investigation between mass and acceleration
Stage 1 - Planning
Title: Investigating acceleration – How does changing the mass of an object change its acceleration?
Introduction: As the speed of moving object and rate, the forces acting on the object, the mass of the object, and gravitational force of it might affect the acceleration, I will investigate about the mass of the object.
Aim: I will try to answer the question “How does changing the mass of an object change its acceleration?” which is to find the relationship between the mass of an object and the acceleration rate.
Hypothesis: I think that a trolley with a large mass will accelerate slower than a trolley with a small mass.
Apparatus: Ramp, blocks, trolley, string, masses (50g, 100g, 1kg), pulley, stop clock, sticky tape, laptop, data logger, two light gates
(Labeled diagram indicated below)
(Photo by: “Yenka simulations – Road Science”, http://mathsci.werribeesc.vic.edu.au/science10/Yenka/10_trolley_acceleration.html)
Method for collection of data:
Independent variable --- Mass of trolley, steepness of the ramp
Dependent variable --- Acceleration, time taken
Constant variable --- Temperature, slope, starting point, ending point, etc.
1. Fasten the pulley to one end of the ramp, and place it near the end of the bench
2. Put some blocks under the other end of the ramp.
3. Push the trolley...

...Measurement of Free-Fall Acceleration
Introduction
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), the man first accredited with the correct notion of free-fall with uniform acceleration, stated that 'if one were to remove entirely the resistance of the medium, all materials would descend with equal speed.' Today, this statement holds true for all objects in free-fall near the Earth's surface. The purpose of this experiment is to verify Galileo's assertion thatacceleration is constant. In addition, the magnitude of acceleration will be calculated.
Theory
By definition, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. Instantaneous acceleration is the derivative of velocity with respect to time.
a(t) = dv / dt.
Average acceleration is the change in velocity during a time interval, Dt, divided by the length of that interval,
aave = Dv / Dt.
In this experiment, average acceleration of gravity will be determined by measuring the change in position of a falling object at regularly timed intervals. With this, average velocities for these intervals will be calculated. A graph of the average velocities versus time should give a straight line whose slope is the acceleration of gravity (g).
Apparatus
To determine the acceleration of gravity the Behr apparatus will be used. The device consists of two vertical conducting wires, a thin...

...(b) (c) Find p and q in terms of t.
(3)
Calculate the distance of Q from P when t = 3.
(3)
Calculate the value of t when Q is due north of P.
(2) (Total 8 marks)
2.
A train starts from rest at a station A and moves along a straight horizontal track. For the first 10 s, the train moves with constant acceleration 1.2 m s–2. For the next 24 s it moves with constant acceleration 0.75 m s–2. It then moves with constant speed for T seconds. Finally it slows down with constant deceleration 3 m s–2 until it comes to rest at a station B. (a) (b) (c) Show that, 34 s after leaving A, the speed of the train is 30 m s–1.
(3)
Sketch a speed-time graph to illustrate the motion of the train as it moves from A to B.
(3)
Find the distance moved by the train during the first 34 s of its journey from A.
(4)
The distance from A to B is 3 km. (d) Find the value of T.
(4) (Total 14 marks)
3.
Two cars A and B are moving in the same direction along a straight horizontal road. At time t = 0, they are side by side, passing a point O on the road. Car A travels at a constant speed of 30 m s–1. Car B passes O with a speed of 20 m s–1, and has constant acceleration of 4 m s–2. Find (a) (b) (c) the speed of B when it has travelled 78 m from O,
(2)
the distance from O of A when B is 78 m from O,
(4)
the time when B overtakes A.
(5) (Total 11 marks)
4.
A post is driven into the ground by means of a blow from a...

...of Force and Mass on an Object’s Acceleration
Abstract: In this lab there were two principals investigated. The first was the relationship between applied force and acceleration. The second was the relationship between mass and acceleration. To study these two relationships, my partners and I used a dynamic cart with added mass on it. This cart was then attached to a pulley system on a “frictionless track” where it was pulled by a string bearing mass over the edge of a table. In the first relationship tested, applied force and acceleration, mass was moved from being on the cart to being on the end of the pulley. My partners and I measured the acceleration with the LabQuest computer every time the cart was released. In order to test the relationship between mass and acceleration, my group added different amounts of mass to the cart and measured the changes in acceleration. From all of the data collected we concluded that force and acceleration have a direct, linear relationship. We also determined that mass and acceleration have an inverse, quadratic relationship.
Background:
When my lab partners and I started this lab, we came in knowing some background information on what we were doing and the concepts involved. We knew that we had to determine the relationships between acceleration in a system and...